
Federico Mari, Igor Melatti, Ivano Salvo, and Enrico Tronci. Model Based Synthesis of Control Software from System Level Formal Specifications. Vol. abs/1107.5638. CoRR, Technical Report, 2013. http://arxiv.org/abs/1107.5638 (accessed December 10, 2023).
Abstract: Many Embedded Systems are indeed Software Based Control Systems, that is control systems whose controller consists of control software running on a microcontroller device. This motivates investigation on Formal Model Based Design approaches for automatic synthesis of embedded systems control software.
We present an algorithm, along with a tool QKS implementing it, that from a formal model (as a Discrete Time Linear Hybrid System) of the controlled system (plant), implementation specifications (that is, number of bits in the AnalogtoDigital, AD, conversion) and System Level Formal Specifications (that is, safety and liveness requirements for the closed loop system) returns correctbyconstruction control software that has a Worst Case Execution Time (WCET) linear in the number of AD bits and meets the given specifications.
We show feasibility of our approach by presenting experimental results on using it to synthesize control software for a buck DCDC converter, a widely used mixedmode analog circuit, and for the inverted pendulum.



Federico Mari, Igor Melatti, Ivano Salvo, and Enrico Tronci. From Boolean Functional Equations to Control Software. Vol. abs/1106.0468. CoRR, Technical Report, 2011. http://arxiv.org/abs/1106.0468 (accessed December 10, 2023).
Abstract: Many software as well digital hardware automatic synthesis methods define the set of implementations meeting the given system specifications with a boolean relation K. In such a context a fundamental step in the software (hardware) synthesis process is finding effective solutions to the functional equation defined by K. This entails finding a (set of) boolean function(s) F (typically represented using OBDDs, Ordered Binary Decision Diagrams) such that: 1) for all x for which K is satisfiable, K(x, F(x)) = 1 holds; 2) the implementation of F is efficient with respect to given implementation parameters such as code size or execution time. While this problem has been widely studied in digital hardware synthesis, little has been done in a software synthesis context. Unfortunately the approaches developed for hardware synthesis cannot be directly used in a software context. This motivates investigation of effective methods to solve the above problem when F has to be implemented with software. In this paper we present an algorithm that, from an OBDD representation for K, generates a C code implementation for F that has the same size as the OBDD for F and a WCET (Worst Case Execution Time) at most O(nr), being n = x the number of arguments of functions in F and r the number of functions in F.



Federico Mari, Igor Melatti, Ivano Salvo, and Enrico Tronci. Quantized Feedback Control Software Synthesis from System Level Formal Specifications for Buck DC/DC Converters. Vol. abs/1105.5640. CoRR, Technical Report, 2011. http://arxiv.org/abs/1105.5640 (accessed December 10, 2023).
Abstract: Many Embedded Systems are indeed Software Based Control Systems (SBCSs), that is control systems whose controller consists of control software running on a microcontroller device. This motivates investigation on Formal Model Based Design approaches for automatic synthesis of SBCS control software. In previous works we presented an algorithm, along with a tool QKS implementing it, that from a formal model (as a Discrete Time Linear Hybrid System, DTLHS) of the controlled system (plant), implementation specifications (that is, number of bits in the AnalogtoDigital, AD, conversion) and System Level Formal Specifications (that is, safety and liveness requirements for the closed loop system) returns correctbyconstruction control software that has a Worst Case Execution Time (WCET) linear in the number of AD bits and meets the given specifications. In this technical report we present full experimental results on using it to synthesize control software for two versions of buck DCDC converters (singleinput and multiinput), a widely used mixedmode analog circuit.



Federico Mari, Igor Melatti, Ivano Salvo, and Enrico Tronci. "Model Based Synthesis of Control Software from System Level Formal Specifications." ACM TRANSACTIONS ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING AND METHODOLOGY 23, no. 1 (2014): Article 6. ACM. ISSN: 1049331X. DOI: 10.1145/2559934.



Federico Mari, Igor Melatti, Ivano Salvo, and Enrico Tronci. "Synthesizing Control Software from Boolean Relations." International Journal on Advances in Software vol. 5, nr 3&4 (2012): 212–223. IARIA. ISSN: 19422628.
Abstract: Many software as well digital hardware automatic
synthesis methods define the set of
implementations meeting the given system
specifications with a boolean relation K. In
such a context a fundamental step in the software
(hardware) synthesis process is finding effective
solutions to the functional equation defined by
K. This entails finding a (set of) boolean
function(s) F (typically represented using
OBDDs, Ordered Binary Decision Diagrams)
such that: 1) for all x for which K is
satisfiable, K(x, F(x)) = 1 holds; 2) the
implementation of F is efficient with respect
to given implementation parameters such as code
size or execution time. While this problem has
been widely studied in digital hardware synthesis,
little has been done in a software synthesis
context. Unfortunately, the approaches developed
for hardware synthesis cannot be directly used in
a software context. This motivates investigation
of effective methods to solve the above problem
when F has to be implemented with software. In
this paper, we present an algorithm that, from an
OBDD representation for K, generates a C code
implementation for F that has the same size as
the OBDD for F and a worst case execution time
linear in nr, being n = x the number of
input arguments for functions in F and r the
number of functions in F. Moreover, a formal
proof of the proposed algorithm correctness is
also shown. Finally, we present experimental
results showing effectiveness of the proposed
algorithm.
Keywords: Control Software Synthesis; Embedded Systems; Model Checking



Federico Mari, Igor Melatti, Ivano Salvo, and Enrico Tronci. "Linear Constraints and Guarded Predicates as a Modeling Language for Discrete Time Hybrid Systems." International Journal on Advances in Software vol. 6, nr 1&2 (2013): 155–169. IARIA. ISSN: 19422628.
Abstract: Model based design is particularly appealing in
software based control systems (e.g., embedded
software) design, since in such a case system
level specifications are much easier to define
than the control software behavior itself. In
turn, model based design of embedded systems
requires modeling both continuous subsystems
(typically, the plant) as well as discrete
subsystems (the controller). This is typically
done using hybrid systems. Mixed Integer Linear
Programming (MILP) based abstraction techniques
have been successfully applied to automatically
synthesize correctbyconstruction control
software for discrete time linear hybrid systems,
where plant dynamics is modeled as a linear
predicate over state, input, and next state
variables. Unfortunately, MILP solvers require
such linear predicates to be conjunctions of
linear constraints, which is not a natural way of
modeling hybrid systems. In this paper we show
that, under the hypothesis that each variable
ranges over a bounded interval, any linear
predicate built upon conjunction and disjunction
of linear constraints can be automatically
translated into an equivalent conjunctive
predicate. Since variable bounds play a key role
in this translation, our algorithm includes a
procedure to compute all implicit variable bounds
of the given linear predicate. Furthermore, we
show that a particular form of linear predicates,
namely guarded predicates, are a natural and
powerful language to succinctly model discrete
time linear hybrid systems dynamics. Finally, we
experimentally show the feasibility of our
approach on an important and challenging case
study taken from the literature, namely the
multiinput Buck DCDC Converter. As an example,
the guarded predicate that models (with 57
constraints) a 6inputs Buck DCDC Converter is
translated in a conjunctive predicate (with 102
linear constraints) in about 40 minutes.
Keywords: Modelbased software design; Linear predicates; Hybrid systems



Toni Mancini, Federico Mari, Annalisa Massini, Igor Melatti, and Enrico Tronci. "Anytime System Level Verification via Random Exhaustive Hardware In The Loop Simulation." In In Proceedings of 17th EuroMicro Conference on Digital System Design (DSD 2014)., 2014. DOI: 10.1109/DSD.2014.91.



Toni Mancini, Federico Mari, Annalisa Massini, Igor Melatti, and Enrico Tronci. "SyLVaaS: System Level Formal Verification as a Service." In Proceedings of the 23rd Euromicro International Conference on Parallel, Distributed and Networkbased Processing (PDP 2015), special session on Formal Approaches to Parallel and Distributed Systems (4PAD)., 2015. DOI: 10.1109/PDP.2015.119.



Toni Mancini, Federico Mari, Annalisa Massini, Igor Melatti, and Enrico Tronci. "Simulator Semantics for System Level Formal Verification." In Proceedings Sixth International Symposium on Games, Automata, Logics and Formal Verification (GandALF 2015),., 2015. DOI: 10.4204/EPTCS.193.7.



Toni Mancini, Federico Mari, Annalisa Massini, Igor Melatti, Fabio Merli, and Enrico Tronci. "System Level Formal Verification via Model Checking Driven Simulation." In Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Computer Aided Verification. July 1319, 2013, Saint Petersburg, Russia, 296–312. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8044. Springer  Verlag, 2013. ISSN: 03029743. ISBN: 9783642397981. DOI: 10.1007/9783642397998_21.

