
Giuseppe Della Penna, Benedetto Intrigila, Daniele Magazzeni, Igor Melatti, and Enrico Tronci. "CGMurphi: Automatic synthesis of numerical controllers for nonlinear hybrid systems." European Journal of Control 19, no. 1 (2013): 14–36. Elsevier NorthHolland, Inc.. ISSN: 09473580. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejcon.2013.02.001.



Benedetto Intrigila, Ivano Salvo, and Stefano Sorgi. "A characterization of weakly ChurchRosser abstract reduction systems that are not ChurchRosser." Information and Computation 171, no. 2 (2001): 137–155. Academic Press, Inc.. ISSN: 08905401. DOI: 10.1006/inco.2001.2945.
Abstract: Basic properties of rewriting systems can be stated in the framework of abstract reduction systems (ARS). Properties like confluence (or ChurchRosser, CR) and weak confluence (or weak ChurchRosser, WCR) and their relationships can be studied in this setting: as a matter of fact, wellknown counterexamples to the implication WCR CR have been formulated as ARS. In this paper, starting from the observation that such counterexamples are structurally similar, we set out a graphtheoretic characterization of WCR ARS that is not CR in terms of a suitable class of reduction graphs, such that in every WCR not CR ARS, we can embed at least one element of this class. Moreover, we give a tighter characterization for a restricted class of ARS enjoying a suitable regularity condition. Finally, as a consequence of our approach, we prove some interesting results about ARS using the mathematical tools developed. In particular, we prove an extension of the NewmanÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s lemma and we find out conditions that, once assumed together with WCR property, ensure the unique normal form property. The Appendix treats two interesting examples, both generated by graphrewriting rules, with specific combinatorial properties.



Igor Melatti, Robert Palmer, Geoffrey Sawaya, Yu Yang, Robert Mike Kirby, and Ganesh Gopalakrishnan. "Parallel and Distributed Model Checking in Eddy." In Model Checking Software, 13th International SPIN Workshop, Vienna, Austria, March 30 – April 1, 2006, Proceedings, edited by A. Valmari, 108–125. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 3925. Springer  Verlag, 2006. ISSN: 03029743. ISBN: 9783540331025. DOI: 10.1007/11691617_7.
Abstract: Model checking of safety properties can be scaled up by pooling the CPU and memory resources of multiple computers. As compute clusters containing 100s of nodes, with each node realized using multicore (e.g., 2) CPUs will be widespread, a model checker based on the parallel (shared memory) and distributed (message passing) paradigms will more efficiently use the hardware resources. Such a model checker can be designed by having each node employ two shared memory threads that run on the (typically) two CPUs of a node, with one thread responsible for state generation, and the other for efficient communication, including (i) performing overlapped asynchronous message passing, and (ii) aggregating the states to be sent into larger chunks in order to improve communication network utilization. We present the design details of such a novel model checking architecture called Eddy. We describe the design rationale, details of how the threads interact and yield control, exchange messages, as well as detect termination. We have realized an instance of this architecture for the Murphi modeling language. Called Eddy_Murphi, we report its performance over the number of nodes as well as communication parameters such as those controlling state aggregation. Nearly linear reduction of compute time with increasing number of nodes is observed. Our thread task partition is done in such a way that it is modular, easy to port across different modeling languages, and easy to tune across a variety of platforms.



Vadim Alimguzhin, Federico Mari, Igor Melatti, Ivano Salvo, and Enrico Tronci. "OntheFly Control Software Synthesis." In Proceedings of International SPIN Symposium on Model Checking of Software (SPIN 2013), 61–80. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 7976. Springer  Verlag, 2013. ISSN: 03029743. ISBN: 9783642391750. DOI: 10.1007/9783642391767_5.



Vadim Alimguzhin, Federico Mari, Igor Melatti, Ivano Salvo, and Enrico Tronci. "A MapReduce Parallel Approach to Automatic Synthesis of Control Software." In Proc. of International SPIN Symposium on Model Checking of Software (SPIN 2013), 43–60. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 7976. Springer  Verlag, 2013. ISSN: 03029743. ISBN: 9783642391750. DOI: 10.1007/9783642391767_4.



Toni Mancini, Federico Mari, Annalisa Massini, Igor Melatti, Fabio Merli, and Enrico Tronci. "System Level Formal Verification via Model Checking Driven Simulation." In Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Computer Aided Verification. July 1319, 2013, Saint Petersburg, Russia, 296–312. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8044. Springer  Verlag, 2013. ISSN: 03029743. ISBN: 9783642397981. DOI: 10.1007/9783642397998_21.



Benedetto Intrigila, Igor Melatti, Alberto Tofani, and Guido Macchiarelli. "Computational models of myocardial endomysial collagen arrangement." Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine 86, no. 3 (2007): 232–244. Elsevier NorthHolland, Inc.. ISSN: 01692607. DOI: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2007.03.004.
Abstract: Collagen extracellular matrix is one of the factors related to high passive stiffness of cardiac muscle. However, the architecture and the mechanical aspects of the cardiac collagen matrix are not completely known. In particular, endomysial collagen contribution to the passive mechanics of cardiac muscle as well as its micro anatomical arrangement is still a matter of debate. In order to investigate mechanical and structural properties of endomysial collagen, we consider two alternative computational models of some specific aspects of the cardiac muscle. These two models represent two different views of endomysial collagen distribution: (1) the traditional view and (2) a new view suggested by the data obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in NaOH macerated samples (a method for isolating collagen from the other tissue). We model the myocardial tissue as a net of spring elements representing the cardiomyocytes together with the endomysial collagen distribution. Each element is a viscous elastic spring, characterized by an elastic and a viscous constant. We connect these springs to imitate the interconnections between collagen fibers. Then we apply to the net of springs some external forces of suitable magnitude and direction, obtaining an extension of the net itself. In our setting, the ratio forces magnitude /net extension is intended to model the stress /strain ratio of a microscopical portion of the myocardial tissue. To solve the problem of the correct identification of the values of the different parameters involved, we use an artificial neural network approach. In particular, we use this technique to learn, given a distribution of external forces, the elastic constants of the springs needed to obtain a desired extension as an equilibrium position. Our experimental findings show that, in the model of collagen distribution structured according to the new view, a given stress /strain ratio (of the net of springs, in the sense specified above) is obtained with much smaller (w.r.t. the other model, corresponding to the traditional view) elasticity constants of the springs. This seems to indicate that by an appropriate structure, a given stiffness of the myocardial tissue can be obtained with endomysial collagen fibers of much smaller size.



Giuseppe Della Penna, Antinisca Di Marco, Benedetto Intrigila, Igor Melatti, and Alfonso Pierantonio. "Interoperability mapping from XML schemas to ER diagrams." Data Knowl. Eng. 59, no. 1 (2006): 166–188. Elsevier Science Publishers B. V.. ISSN: 0169023x. DOI: 10.1016/j.datak.2005.08.002.
Abstract: The eXtensible Markup Language (XML) is a de facto standard on the Internet and is now being used to exchange a variety of data structures. This leads to the problem of efficiently storing, querying and retrieving a great amount of data contained in XML documents. Unfortunately, XML data often need to coexist with historical data. At present, the best solution for storing XML into preexisting data structures is to extract the information from the XML documents and adapt it to the data structuresÃ¢â‚¬â„¢ logical model (e.g., the relational model of a DBMS). In this paper, we introduce a technique called Xere (XML entityÃ‚â€“relationship exchange) to assist the integration of XML data with other data sources. To this aim, we present an algorithm that maps XML schemas into entityÃ‚â€“relationship diagrams, discuss its soundness and completeness and show its implementation in XSLT.



T. Mancini, F. Mari, A. Massini, I. Melatti, and E. Tronci. "Anytime system level verification via parallel random exhaustive hardware in the loop simulation." Microprocessors and Microsystems 41 (2016): 12–28. ISSN: 01419331. DOI: 10.1016/j.micpro.2015.10.010.
Abstract: Abstract System level verification of cyberphysical systems has the goal of verifying that the whole (i.e., software + hardware) system meets the given specifications. Model checkers for hybrid systems cannot handle system level verification of actual systems. Thus, Hardware In the Loop Simulation (HILS) is currently the main workhorse for system level verification. By using model checking driven exhaustive HILS, System Level Formal Verification (SLFV) can be effectively carried out for actual systems. We present a parallel random exhaustive HILS based model checker for hybrid systems that, by simulating all operational scenarios exactly once in a uniform random order, is able to provide, at any time during the verification process, an upper bound to the probability that the System Under Verification exhibits an error in a yettobesimulated scenario (Omission Probability). We show effectiveness of the proposed approach by presenting experimental results on SLFV of the Inverted Pendulum on a Cart and the Fuel Control System examples in the Simulink distribution. To the best of our knowledge, no previously published model checker can exhaustively verify hybrid systems of such a size and provide at any time an upper bound to the Omission Probability.
Keywords: Model Checking of Hybrid Systems; Model checking driven simulation; Hardware in the loop simulation



V. Alimguzhin, F. Mari, I. Melatti, I. Salvo, and E. Tronci. "Linearising Discrete Time Hybrid Systems." IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control 62, no. 10 (2017): 5357–5364. ISSN: 00189286. DOI: 10.1109/TAC.2017.2694559.
Abstract: Model Based Design approaches for embedded systems aim at generating correctbyconstruction control software, guaranteeing that the closed loop system (controller and plant) meets given system level formal specifications. This technical note addresses control synthesis for safety and reachability properties of possibly nonlinear discrete time hybrid systems. By means of syntactical transformations that require nonlinear terms to be Lipschitz continuous functions, we overapproximate nonlinear dynamics with a linear system whose controllers are guaranteed to be controllers of the original system. We evaluate performance of our approach on meaningful control synthesis benchmarks, also comparing it to a stateoftheart tool.

