Edoardo Campagnano, Ester Ciancamerla, Michele Minichino, and Enrico Tronci. "Automatic Analysis of a Safety Critical Tele Control System." In 24th International Conference on: Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security (SAFECOMP), edited by R. Winther, B. A. Gran and G. Dahll, 94–107. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 3688. Fredrikstad, Norway: Springer, 2005. ISSN: 3540292004. DOI: 10.1007/11563228_8.
Abstract: We show how the Mur$\varphi$ model checker can be used to automatically carry out safety analysis of a quite complex hybrid system telecontrolling vehicles traffic inside a safety critical transport infrastructure such as a long bridge or a tunnel. We present the Mur$\varphi$ model we developed towards this end as well as the experimental results we obtained by running the Mur$\varphi$ verifier on our model. Our experimental results show that the approach presented here can be used to verify safety of critical dimensioning parameters (e.g. bandwidth) of the telecommunication network embedded in a safety critical system.

Giuseppe Della Penna, Benedetto Intrigila, Igor Melatti, and Enrico Tronci. "Exploiting Hub States in Automatic Verification." In Automated Technology for Verification and Analysis: Third International Symposium, ATVA 2005, Taipei, Taiwan, October 47, 2005, Proceedings, edited by D.A. Peled and Y.K. Tsay, 54–68. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 3707. Springer, 2005. ISSN: 3540292098. DOI: 10.1007/11562948_7.
Abstract: In this paper we present a new algorithm to counteract state explosion when using Explicit State Space Exploration to verify protocollike systems. We sketch the implementation of our algorithm within the Caching Mur$\varphi$ verifier and give experimental results showing its effectiveness. We show experimentally that, when memory is a scarce resource, our algorithm improves on the time performances of Caching Mur$\varphi$ verification algorithm, saving between 16% and 68% (45% on average) in computation time.

Enrico Tronci, Giuseppe Della Penna, Benedetto Intrigila, and Marisa Venturini Zilli. "Exploiting Transition Locality in Automatic Verification." In 11th IFIP WG 10.5 Advanced Research Working Conference on Correct Hardware Design and Verification Methods (CHARME), edited by T. Margaria and T. F. Melham, 259–274. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2144. Livingston, Scotland, UK: Springer, 2001. ISSN: 3540425411. DOI: 10.1007/3540447989_22.
Abstract: In this paper we present an algorithm to contrast state explosion when using Explicit State Space Exploration to verify protocols. We show experimentally that protocols exhibit transition locality. We present a verification algorithm that exploits transition locality as well as an implementation of it within the Mur$\varphi$ verifier. Our algorithm is compatible with all Breadth First (BF) optimization techniques present in the Mur$\varphi$ verifier and it is by no means a substitute for any of them. In fact, since our algorithm trades space with time, it is typically most useful when one runs out of memory and has already used all other state reduction techniques present in the Mur$\varphi$ verifier. Our experimental results show that using our approach we can typically save more than 40% of RAM with an average time penalty of about 50% when using (Mur$\varphi$) bit compression and 100% when using bit compression and hash compaction.

Marco Gribaudo, Andras HorvÃ¡th, Andrea Bobbio, Enrico Tronci, Ester Ciancamerla, and Michele Minichino. "ModelChecking Based on Fluid Petri Nets for the Temperature Control System of the ICARO Cogenerative Plant." In 21st International Conference on Computer Safety, Reliability and Security (SAFECOMP), edited by S. Anderson, S. Bologna and M. Felici, 273–283. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2434. Catania, Italy: Springer, 2002. ISSN: 3540441573. DOI: 10.1007/3540457321_27.
Abstract: The modeling and analysis of hybrid systems is a recent and challenging research area which is actually dominated by two main lines: a functional analysis based on the description of the system in terms of discrete state (hybrid) automata (whose goal is to ascertain for conformity and reachability properties), and a stochastic analysis (whose aim is to provide performance and dependability measures). This paper investigates a unifying view between formal methods and stochastic methods by proposing an analysis methodology of hybrid systems based on Fluid Petri Nets (FPN). It is shown that the same FPN model can be fed to a functional analyser for model checking as well as to a stochastic analyser for performance evaluation. We illustrate our approach and show its usefulness by applying it to a Ã¢â‚¬Å“real worldÃ¢â‚¬Â¯ hybrid system: the temperature control system of a cogenerative plant.

Rosario Pugliese, and Enrico Tronci. "Automatic Verification of a Hydroelectric Power Plant." In Third International Symposium of Formal Methods Europe (FME), CoSponsored by IFIP WG 14.3, edited by M.  C. Gaudel and J. Woodcock, 425–444. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 1051. Oxford, UK: Springer, 1996. ISSN: 3540609733. DOI: 10.1007/3540609733_100.
Abstract: We analyze the specification of a hydroelectric power plant by ENEL (the Italian Electric Company). Our goal is to show that for the specification of the plant (its control system in particular) some given properties hold. We were provided with an informal specification of the plant. From such informal specification we wrote a formal specification using the CCS/Meije process algebra formalism. We defined properties using μcalculus. Automatic verification was carried out using model checking. This was done by translating our process algebra definitions (the model) and μcalculus formulas into BDDs. In this paper we present the informal specification of the plant, its formal specification, some of the properties we verified and experimental results.

Alessandro Fantechi, Stefania Gnesi, Franco Mazzanti, Rosario Pugliese, and Enrico Tronci. "A Symbolic Model Checker for ACTL." In International Workshop on Current Trends in Applied Formal Method (FMTrends), edited by D. Hutter, W. Stephan, P. Traverso and M. Ullmann, 228–242. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 1641. Boppard, Germany: Springer, 1998. ISSN: 3540664629. DOI: 10.1007/3540482571_14.
Abstract: We present SAM, a symbolic model checker for ACTL, the actionbased version of CTL. SAM relies on implicit representations of Labeled Transition Systems (LTSs), the semantic domain for ACTL formulae, and uses symbolic manipulation algorithms. SAM has been realized by translating (networks of) LTSs and, possibly recursive, ACTL formulae into BSP (Boolean Symbolic Programming), a programming language aiming at defining computations on boolean functions, and by using the BSP interpreter to carry out computations (i.e. verifications).

Giuseppe Della Penna, Daniele Magazzeni, Alberto Tofani, Benedetto Intrigila, Igor Melatti, and Enrico Tronci. "Automated Generation of Optimal Controllers through Model Checking Techniques." In IcincoIcso, edited by J. AndradeCetto, J.  L. Ferrier, J. M. C. D. Pereira and J. Filipe, 26–33. INSTICC Press, 2006. ISSN: 9728865597. DOI: 10.1007/9783540791423.
Abstract: We present a methodology for the synthesis of controllers, which exploits (explicit) model checking techniques. That is, we can cope with the systematic exploration of a very large state space. This methodology can be applied to systems where other approaches fail. In particular, we can consider systems with an highly nonlinear dynamics and lacking a uniform mathematical description (model). We can also consider situations where the required control action cannot be specified as a local action, and rather a kind of planning is required. Our methodology individuates first a raw optimal controller, then extends it to obtain a more robust one. A case study is presented which considers the well known trucktrailer obstacle avoidance parking problem, in a parking lot with obstacles on it. The complex nonlinear dynamics of the trucktrailer system, within the presence of obstacles, makes the parking problem extremely hard. We show how, by our methodology, we can obtain optimal controllers with different degrees of robustness.

Federico Mari, Igor Melatti, Ivano Salvo, Enrico Tronci, Lorenzo Alvisi, Allen Clement, and Harry Li. "Model Checking Nash Equilibria in MAD Distributed Systems." In FMCAD '08: Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Formal Methods in ComputerAided Design, edited by A. Cimatti and R. Jones, 1–8. Piscataway, NJ, USA: IEEE Press, 2008. ISSN: 9781424427352. DOI: 10.1109/FMCAD.2008.ECP.16.
Abstract: We present a symbolic model checking algorithm for verification of Nash equilibria in finite state mechanisms modeling Multiple Administrative Domains (MAD) distributed systems. Given a finite state mechanism, a proposed protocol for each agent and an indifference threshold for rewards, our model checker returns PASS if the proposed protocol is a Nash equilibrium (up to the given indifference threshold) for the given mechanism, FAIL otherwise. We implemented our model checking algorithm inside the NuSMV model checker and present experimental results showing its effectiveness for moderate size mechanisms. For example, we can handle mechanisms which corresponding normal form games would have more than $10^20$ entries. To the best of our knowledge, no model checking algorithm for verification of mechanism Nash equilibria has been previously published.
Keywords: Model Checking, MAD Distributed System, Nash Equilibrium

Federico Mari, Igor Melatti, Ivano Salvo, and Enrico Tronci. "From Boolean Relations to Control Software." In Proceedings of ICSEA 2011, The Sixth International Conference on Software Engineering Advances, 528–533. ThinkMind, 2011. ISSN: 9781612081656. Notes: Best Paper Award.
Abstract: Many software as well digital hardware automatic synthesis methods define the set of implementations meeting the given system specifications with a boolean relation K. In such a context a fundamental step in the software (hardware) synthesis process is finding effective solutions to the functional equation defined by K. This entails finding a (set of) boolean function(s) F (typically represented using OBDDs, Ordered Binary Decision Diagrams) such that: 1) for all x for which K is satisfiable, K(x, F(x)) = 1 holds; 2) the implementation of F is efficient with respect to given implementation parameters such as code size or execution time. While this problem has been widely studied in digital hardware synthesis, little has been done in a software synthesis context. Unfortunately the approaches developed for hardware synthesis cannot be directly used in a software context. This motivates investigation of effective methods to solve the above problem when F has to be implemented with software. In this paper we present an algorithm that, from an OBDD representation for K, generates a C code implementation for F that has the same size as the OBDD for F and a WCET (Worst Case Execution Time) linear in nr, being n = x the number of input arguments for functions in F and r the number of functions in F.

Federico Mari, Igor Melatti, Ivano Salvo, and Enrico Tronci. "Control Software Visualization." In Proceedings of INFOCOMP 2012, The Second International Conference on Advanced Communications and Computation, 15–20. ThinkMind, 2012. ISSN: 9781612082264.
