Federico Mari, Igor Melatti, Ivano Salvo, Enrico Tronci, Lorenzo Alvisi, Allen Clement, and Harry Li. "Model Checking Nash Equilibria in MAD Distributed Systems." In FMCAD '08: Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Formal Methods in ComputerAided Design, edited by A. Cimatti and R. Jones, 1–8. Piscataway, NJ, USA: IEEE Press, 2008. ISSN: 9781424427352. DOI: 10.1109/FMCAD.2008.ECP.16.
Abstract: We present a symbolic model checking algorithm for verification of Nash equilibria in finite state mechanisms modeling Multiple Administrative Domains (MAD) distributed systems. Given a finite state mechanism, a proposed protocol for each agent and an indifference threshold for rewards, our model checker returns PASS if the proposed protocol is a Nash equilibrium (up to the given indifference threshold) for the given mechanism, FAIL otherwise. We implemented our model checking algorithm inside the NuSMV model checker and present experimental results showing its effectiveness for moderate size mechanisms. For example, we can handle mechanisms which corresponding normal form games would have more than $10^20$ entries. To the best of our knowledge, no model checking algorithm for verification of mechanism Nash equilibria has been previously published.
Keywords: Model Checking, MAD Distributed System, Nash Equilibrium

Federico Mari, Igor Melatti, Ivano Salvo, and Enrico Tronci. "Linear Constraints and Guarded Predicates as a Modeling Language for Discrete Time Hybrid Systems." International Journal on Advances in Software vol. 6, nr 1&2 (2013): 155–169. IARIA. ISSN: 19422628.
Abstract: Model based design is particularly appealing in
software based control systems (e.g., embedded
software) design, since in such a case system
level specifications are much easier to define
than the control software behavior itself. In
turn, model based design of embedded systems
requires modeling both continuous subsystems
(typically, the plant) as well as discrete
subsystems (the controller). This is typically
done using hybrid systems. Mixed Integer Linear
Programming (MILP) based abstraction techniques
have been successfully applied to automatically
synthesize correctbyconstruction control
software for discrete time linear hybrid systems,
where plant dynamics is modeled as a linear
predicate over state, input, and next state
variables. Unfortunately, MILP solvers require
such linear predicates to be conjunctions of
linear constraints, which is not a natural way of
modeling hybrid systems. In this paper we show
that, under the hypothesis that each variable
ranges over a bounded interval, any linear
predicate built upon conjunction and disjunction
of linear constraints can be automatically
translated into an equivalent conjunctive
predicate. Since variable bounds play a key role
in this translation, our algorithm includes a
procedure to compute all implicit variable bounds
of the given linear predicate. Furthermore, we
show that a particular form of linear predicates,
namely guarded predicates, are a natural and
powerful language to succinctly model discrete
time linear hybrid systems dynamics. Finally, we
experimentally show the feasibility of our
approach on an important and challenging case
study taken from the literature, namely the
multiinput Buck DCDC Converter. As an example,
the guarded predicate that models (with 57
constraints) a 6inputs Buck DCDC Converter is
translated in a conjunctive predicate (with 102
linear constraints) in about 40 minutes.
Keywords: Modelbased software design; Linear predicates; Hybrid systems

S. Sinisi, V. Alimguzhin, T. Mancini, and E. Tronci. "Reconciling interoperability with efficient Verification and Validation within open source simulation environments." Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory (2021): 102277. ISSN: 1569190x. DOI: 10.1016/j.simpat.2021.102277.
Abstract: A CyberPhysical System (CPS) comprises physical as well as software subsystems. Simulationbased approaches are typically used to support design and Verification and Validation (V&V) of CPSs in several domains such as: aerospace, defence, automotive, smart grid and healthcare. Accordingly, many simulationbased tools are available to support CPS design. This, on one side, enables designers to choose the toolchain that best suits their needs, on the other side poses huge interoperability challenges when one needs to simulate CPSs whose subsystems have been designed and modelled using different toolchains. To overcome such an interoperability problem, in 2010 the Functional Mockup Interface (FMI) has been proposed as an open standard to support both Model Exchange (ME) and CoSimulation (CS) of simulation models created with different toolchains. FMI has been adopted by several modelling and simulation environments. Models adhering to such a standard are called Functional Mockup Units (FMUs). Indeed FMUs play an essential role in defining complex CPSs through, e.g., the System Structure and Parametrization (SSP) standard. Simulationbased V&V of CPSs typically requires exploring different simulation scenarios (i.e., exogenous input sequences to the CPS under design). Many such scenarios have a shared prefix. Accordingly, to avoid simulating many times such shared prefixes, the simulator state at the end of a shared prefix is saved and then restored and used as a start state for the simulation of the next scenario. In this context, an important FMI feature is the capability to save and restore the internal FMU state on demand. This is crucial to increase efficiency of simulationbased V&V. Unfortunately, the implementation of this feature is not mandatory and it is available only within some commercial software. As a result, the interoperability enabled by the FMI standard cannot be fully exploited for V&V when using opensource simulation environments. This motivates developing such a feature for opensource CPS simulation environments. Accordingly, in this paper, we focus on JModelica, an opensource modelling and simulation environment for CPSs based on an open standard modelling language, namely Modelica. We describe how we have endowed JModelica with our opensource implementation of the FMI 2.0 functions needed to save and restore internal states of FMUs for ME. Furthermore, we present experimental results evaluating, through 934 benchmark models, correctness and efficiency of our extended JModelica. Our experimental results show that simulationbased V&V is, on average, 22 times faster with our get/set functionality than without it.
Keywords: Simulation, Verification and Validation, Interoperability, FMI/FMU, Model Exchange, CyberPhysical Systems
