
V. Alimguzhin, F. Mari, I. Melatti, E. Tronci, E. Ebeid, S. A. Mikkelsen, R. H. Jacobsen, J. K. Gruber, B. Hayes, F. Huerta et al. "A Glimpse of SmartHG Project Testbed and Communication Infrastructure." In Digital System Design (DSD), 2015 Euromicro Conference on, 225–232., 2015. DOI: 10.1109/DSD.2015.106.
Keywords: Batteries; Control systems; Databases; Production; Sensors; Servers; Smart grids; Grid State Estimation; Peak Shaving; Policy Robustness Verification; Price Policy Synthesis



B. Leeners, T. Krueger, K. Geraedts, E. Tronci, T. Mancini, F. Ille, M. Egli, S. Roeblitz, D. Wunder, L. Saleh et al. "Cognitive function in association with high estradiol levels resulting from fertility treatment." Hormones and Behavior 130 (2021): 104951. ISSN: 0018506x. DOI: 10.1016/j.yhbeh.2021.104951.
Abstract: The putative association between hormones and cognitive performance is controversial. While there is evidence that estradiol plays a neuroprotective role, hormone treatment has not been shown to improve cognitive performance. Current research is flawed by the evaluation of combined hormonal effects throughout the menstrual cycle or in the menopausal transition. The stimulation phase of a fertility treatment offers a unique model to study the effect of estradiol on cognitive function. This quasiexperimental observational study is based on data from 44 women receiving IVF in Zurich, Switzerland. We assessed visuospatial working memory, attention, cognitive bias, and hormone levels at the beginning and at the end of the stimulation phase of ovarian superstimulation as part of a fertility treatment. In addition to interindividual differences, we examined intraindividual change over time (withinsubject effects). The substantial increases in estradiol levels resulting from fertility treatment did not relate to any considerable change in cognitive functioning. As the tests applied represent a broad variety of cognitive functions on different levels of complexity and with various brain regions involved, we can conclude that estradiol does not show a significant shortterm effect on cognitive function.
Keywords: Cognition, Estrogen, Estradiol, Fertility treatment, Attention, Cognitive bias



T. Mancini, F. Mari, I. Melatti, I. Salvo, E. Tronci, J. K. Gruber, B. Hayes, M. Prodanovic, and L. Elmegaard. "User Flexibility Aware Price Policy Synthesis for Smart Grids." In Digital System Design (DSD), 2015 Euromicro Conference on, 478–485., 2015. DOI: 10.1109/DSD.2015.35.
Keywords: Contracts; Current measurement; Load management; Power demand; Power measurement; State estimation; Substations; Grid State Estimation; Peak Shaving; Policy Robustness Verification; Price Policy Synthesis



Federico Mari, Igor Melatti, Ivano Salvo, and Enrico Tronci. "Synthesizing Control Software from Boolean Relations." International Journal on Advances in Software vol. 5, nr 3&4 (2012): 212–223. IARIA. ISSN: 19422628.
Abstract: Many software as well digital hardware automatic
synthesis methods define the set of
implementations meeting the given system
specifications with a boolean relation K. In
such a context a fundamental step in the software
(hardware) synthesis process is finding effective
solutions to the functional equation defined by
K. This entails finding a (set of) boolean
function(s) F (typically represented using
OBDDs, Ordered Binary Decision Diagrams)
such that: 1) for all x for which K is
satisfiable, K(x, F(x)) = 1 holds; 2) the
implementation of F is efficient with respect
to given implementation parameters such as code
size or execution time. While this problem has
been widely studied in digital hardware synthesis,
little has been done in a software synthesis
context. Unfortunately, the approaches developed
for hardware synthesis cannot be directly used in
a software context. This motivates investigation
of effective methods to solve the above problem
when F has to be implemented with software. In
this paper, we present an algorithm that, from an
OBDD representation for K, generates a C code
implementation for F that has the same size as
the OBDD for F and a worst case execution time
linear in nr, being n = x the number of
input arguments for functions in F and r the
number of functions in F. Moreover, a formal
proof of the proposed algorithm correctness is
also shown. Finally, we present experimental
results showing effectiveness of the proposed
algorithm.
Keywords: Control Software Synthesis; Embedded Systems; Model Checking



Y. Driouich, M. Parente, and E. Tronci. "Modeling cyberphysical systems for automatic verification." In 14th International Conference on Synthesis, Modeling, Analysis and Simulation Methods and Applications to Circuit Design (SMACD 2017), 1–4., 2017. DOI: 10.1109/SMACD.2017.7981621.
Keywords: cyberphysical systems;formal verification;maximum power point trackers;power engineering computing;Modelica;automatic verification;complex power electronics systems;cyberphysical systems modeling;distributed maximum power point tracking system;open standard modeling language;Computational modeling;Control systems;Integrated circuit modeling;Mathematical model;Maximum power point trackers;Object oriented modeling;Radiation effects;Automatic Formal Verification;CyberPhysical Systems;DMPPT;Modeling;Photovoltaic systems;Simulation;System Analysis and Design



T. Mancini, F. Mari, A. Massini, I. Melatti, and E. Tronci. "On Checking Equivalence of Simulation Scripts." Journal of Logical and Algebraic Methods in Programming (2021): 100640. ISSN: 23522208. DOI: 10.1016/j.jlamp.2021.100640.
Abstract: To support Model Based Design of CyberPhysical Systems (CPSs) many simulation based approaches to System Level Formal Verification (SLFV) have been devised. Basically, these are Bounded Model Checking approaches (since simulation horizon is of course bounded) relying on simulators to compute the system dynamics and thereby verify the given system properties. The main obstacle to simulation based SLFV is the large number of simulation scenarios to be considered and thus the huge amount of simulation time needed to complete the verification task. To save on computation time, simulation based SLFV approaches exploit the capability of simulators to save and restore simulation states. Essentially, such a time saving is obtained by optimising the simulation script defining the simulation activity needed to carry out the verification task. Although such approaches aim to (bounded) formal verification, as a matter of fact, the proof of correctness of the methods to optimise simulation scripts basically relies on an intuitive semantics for simulation scripting languages. This hampers the possibility of formally showing that the optimisations introduced to speed up the simulation activity do not actually omit checking of relevant behaviours for the system under verification. The aim of this paper is to fill the above gap by presenting an operational semantics for simulation scripting languages and by proving soundness and completeness properties for it. This, in turn, enables formal proofs of equivalence between unoptimised and optimised simulation scripts.
Keywords: Formal verification, Simulation based formal verification, Formal Verification of cyberphysical systems, Systemlevel formal verification



Flavio Chierichetti, Silvio Lattanzi, Federico Mari, and Alessandro Panconesi. "On Placing Skips Optimally in Expectation." In Web Search and Web Data Mining (WSDM 2008), edited by M. Najork, A. Z. Broder and S. Chakrabarti, 15–24. Acm, 2008. DOI: 10.1145/1341531.1341537.
Abstract: We study the problem of optimal skip placement in an inverted list. Assuming the query distribution to be known in advance, we formally prove that an optimal skip placement can be computed quite efficiently. Our best algorithm runs in time O(n log n), n being the length of the list. The placement is optimal in the sense that it minimizes the expected time to process a query. Our theoretical results are matched by experiments with a real corpus, showing that substantial savings can be obtained with respect to the tra ditional skip placement strategy, that of placing consecutive skips, each spanning sqrt(n) many locations.
Keywords: Information Retrieval



Antonio Bucciarelli, Silvia de Lorenzis, Adolfo Piperno, and Ivano Salvo. "Some Computational Properties of Intersection Types (Extended Abstract)." (1999): 109–118. IEEE Computer Society. DOI: 10.1109/LICS.1999.782598.
Abstract: This paper presents a new method for comparing computationproperties of λterms typeable with intersection types with respect to terms typeable with Curry types. In particular, strong normalization and λdefinability are investigated. A translation is introduced from intersection typing derivations to Curry typeable terms; the main feature of the proposed technique is that the translation is preserved by βreduction. This allows to simulate a computation starting from a term typeable in the intersection discipline by means of a computation starting from a simply typeable term. Our approach naturally leads to prove strong normalization in the intersection system by means of purely syntactical techniques. In addition, the presented method enables us to give a proof of a conjecture proposed by Leivant in 1990, namely that all functions uniformly definable using intersection types are already definable using Curry types.
Keywords: lambda calculusCurry types, intersection types, lambdadefinability, lambdaterms, strong normalization



T. Mancini, F. Mari, A. Massini, I. Melatti, and E. Tronci. "Anytime system level verification via parallel random exhaustive hardware in the loop simulation." Microprocessors and Microsystems 41 (2016): 12–28. ISSN: 01419331. DOI: 10.1016/j.micpro.2015.10.010.
Abstract: Abstract System level verification of cyberphysical systems has the goal of verifying that the whole (i.e., software + hardware) system meets the given specifications. Model checkers for hybrid systems cannot handle system level verification of actual systems. Thus, Hardware In the Loop Simulation (HILS) is currently the main workhorse for system level verification. By using model checking driven exhaustive HILS, System Level Formal Verification (SLFV) can be effectively carried out for actual systems. We present a parallel random exhaustive HILS based model checker for hybrid systems that, by simulating all operational scenarios exactly once in a uniform random order, is able to provide, at any time during the verification process, an upper bound to the probability that the System Under Verification exhibits an error in a yettobesimulated scenario (Omission Probability). We show effectiveness of the proposed approach by presenting experimental results on SLFV of the Inverted Pendulum on a Cart and the Fuel Control System examples in the Simulink distribution. To the best of our knowledge, no previously published model checker can exhaustively verify hybrid systems of such a size and provide at any time an upper bound to the Omission Probability.
Keywords: Model Checking of Hybrid Systems; Model checking driven simulation; Hardware in the loop simulation



Federico Mari, and Enrico Tronci. "CEGAR Based Bounded Model Checking of Discrete Time Hybrid Systems." In Hybrid Systems: Computation and Control (HSCC 2007), edited by A. Bemporad, A. Bicchi and G. C. Buttazzo, 399–412. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 4416. Springer, 2007. DOI: 10.1007/9783540714934_32.
Abstract: Many hybrid systems can be conveniently modeled as Piecewise Affine Discrete Time Hybrid Systems PADTHS. As well known Bounded Model Checking (BMC) for such systems comes down to solve a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) feasibility problem. We present a SAT based BMC algorithm for automatic verification of PADTHSs. Using Counterexample Guided Abstraction Refinement (CEGAR) our algorithm gradually transforms a PADTHS verification problem into larger and larger SAT problems. Our experimental results show that our approach can handle PADTHSs that are more then 50 times larger than those that can be handled using a MILP solver.
Keywords: Model Checking, Abstraction, CEGAR, SAT, Hybrid Systems, DTHS

