
Giuseppe Della Penna, Benedetto Intrigila, Igor Melatti, Michele Minichino, Ester Ciancamerla, Andrea Parisse, Enrico Tronci, and Marisa Venturini Zilli. "Automatic Verification of a Turbogas Control System with the Mur$\varphi$ Verifier." In Hybrid Systems: Computation and Control, 6th International Workshop, HSCC 2003 Prague, Czech Republic, April 35, 2003, Proceedings, edited by O. Maler and A. Pnueli, 141–155. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2623. Springer, 2003. ISSN: 3540009132. DOI: 10.1007/354036580X.
Abstract: Automatic analysis of Hybrid Systems poses formidable challenges both from a modeling as well as from a verification point of view. We present a case study on automatic verification of a Turbogas Control System (TCS) using an extended version of the Mur$\varphi$ verifier. TCS is the heart of ICARO, a 2MW Cogenerative Electric Power Plant. For large hybrid systems, as TCS is, the modeling effort accounts for a significant part of the whole verification activity. In order to ease our modeling effort we extended the Mur$\varphi$ verifier by importing the C language long double type (finite precision real numbers) into it. We give experimental results on running our extended Mur$\varphi$ on our TCS model. For example using Mur$\varphi$ we were able to compute an admissible range of values for the variation speed of the user demand of electric power to the turbogas.



Giuseppe Della Penna, Benedetto Intrigila, Igor Melatti, Enrico Tronci, and Marisa Venturini Zilli. "Finite Horizon Analysis of Stochastic Systems with the Mur$\varphi$ Verifier." In Theoretical Computer Science, 8th Italian Conference, ICTCS 2003, Bertinoro, Italy, October 1315, 2003, Proceedings, edited by C. Blundo and C. Laneve, 58–71. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2841. Springer, 2003. ISSN: 3540202161. DOI: 10.1007/9783540452089_6.
Abstract: Many reactive systems are actually Stochastic Processes. Automatic analysis of such systems is usually very difficult thus typically one simplifies the analysis task by using simulation or by working on a simplified model (e.g. a Markov Chain). We present a Finite Horizon Probabilistic Model Checking approach which essentially can handle the same class of stochastic processes of a typical simulator. This yields easy modeling of the system to be analyzed together with formal verification capabilities. Our approach is based on a suitable disk based extension of the Mur$\varphi$ verifier. Moreover we present experimental results showing effectiveness of our approach.



Giuseppe Della Penna, Benedetto Intrigila, Igor Melatti, Enrico Tronci, and Marisa Venturini Zilli. "Exploiting Transition Locality in Automatic Verification of Finite State Concurrent Systems." Sttt 6, no. 4 (2004): 320–341. DOI: 10.1007/s1000900401496.
Abstract: In this paper we show that statistical properties of the transition graph of a system to be verified can be exploited to improve memory or time performances of verification algorithms. We show experimentally that protocols exhibit transition locality. That is, with respect to levels of a breadthfirst state space exploration, state transitions tend to be between states belonging to close levels of the transition graph. We support our claim by measuring transition locality for the set of protocols included in the Mur$\varphi$ verifier distribution. We present a cachebased verification algorithm that exploits transition locality to decrease memory usage and a diskbased verification algorithm that exploits transition locality to decrease disk read accesses, thus reducing the time overhead due to disk usage. Both algorithms have been implemented within the Mur$\varphi$ verifier. Our experimental results show that our cachebased algorithm can typically save more than 40% of memory with an average time penalty of about 50% when using (Mur$\varphi$) bit compression and 100% when using bit compression and hash compaction, whereas our diskbased verification algorithm is typically more than ten times faster than a previously proposed diskbased verification algorithm and, even when using 10% of the memory needed to complete verification, it is only between 40 and 530% (300% on average) slower than (RAM) Mur$\varphi$ with enough memory to complete the verification task at hand. Using just 300 MB of memory our diskbased Mur$\varphi$ was able to complete verification of a protocol with about $10^9$ reachable states. This would require more than 5 GB of memory using standard Mur$\varphi$.



Federico Mari, and Enrico Tronci. "CEGAR Based Bounded Model Checking of Discrete Time Hybrid Systems." In Hybrid Systems: Computation and Control (HSCC 2007), edited by A. Bemporad, A. Bicchi and G. C. Buttazzo, 399–412. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 4416. Springer, 2007. DOI: 10.1007/9783540714934_32.
Abstract: Many hybrid systems can be conveniently modeled as Piecewise Affine Discrete Time Hybrid Systems PADTHS. As well known Bounded Model Checking (BMC) for such systems comes down to solve a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) feasibility problem. We present a SAT based BMC algorithm for automatic verification of PADTHSs. Using Counterexample Guided Abstraction Refinement (CEGAR) our algorithm gradually transforms a PADTHS verification problem into larger and larger SAT problems. Our experimental results show that our approach can handle PADTHSs that are more then 50 times larger than those that can be handled using a MILP solver.
Keywords: Model Checking, Abstraction, CEGAR, SAT, Hybrid Systems, DTHS



Flavio Chierichetti, Silvio Lattanzi, Federico Mari, and Alessandro Panconesi. "On Placing Skips Optimally in Expectation." In Web Search and Web Data Mining (WSDM 2008), edited by M. Najork, A. Z. Broder and S. Chakrabarti, 15–24. Acm, 2008. DOI: 10.1145/1341531.1341537.
Abstract: We study the problem of optimal skip placement in an inverted list. Assuming the query distribution to be known in advance, we formally prove that an optimal skip placement can be computed quite efficiently. Our best algorithm runs in time O(n log n), n being the length of the list. The placement is optimal in the sense that it minimizes the expected time to process a query. Our theoretical results are matched by experiments with a real corpus, showing that substantial savings can be obtained with respect to the tra ditional skip placement strategy, that of placing consecutive skips, each spanning sqrt(n) many locations.
Keywords: Information Retrieval



Giuseppe Della Penna, Alberto Tofani, Marcello Pecorari, Orazio Raparelli, Benedetto Intrigila, Igor Melatti, and Enrico Tronci. "A Case Study on Automated Generation of Integration Tests." In Fdl, 278–284. Ecsi, 2006. ISSN: 9783000197109.



Federico Cavaliere, Federico Mari, Igor Melatti, Giovanni Minei, Ivano Salvo, Enrico Tronci, Giovanni Verzino, and Yuri Yushtein. "Model Checking Satellite Operational Procedures." In DAta Systems In Aerospace (DASIA), Org. EuroSpace, Canadian Space Agency, CNES, ESA, EUMETSAT. San Anton, Malta, EuroSpace., 2011.
Abstract: We present a model checking approach for the automatic verification of satellite operational procedures (OPs). Building a model for a complex system as a satellite is a hard task. We overcome this obstruction by using a suitable simulator (SIMSAT) for the satellite. Our approach aims at improving OP quality assurance by automatic exhaustive exploration of all possible simulation scenarios. Moreover, our solution decreases OP verification costs by using a model checker (CMurphi) to automatically drive the simulator. We model OPs as userexecuted programs observing the simulator telemetries and sending telecommands to the simulator. In order to assess feasibility of our approach we present experimental results on a simple meaningful scenario. Our results show that we can save up to 90% of verification time.



Amedeo Cesta, Simone Fratini, Andrea Orlandini, Alberto Finzi, and Enrico Tronci. "Flexible Plan Verification: Feasibility Results." Fundamenta Informaticae 107, no. 2 (2011): 111–137. DOI: 10.3233/FI2011397.



Federico Mari, Igor Melatti, Ivano Salvo, and Enrico Tronci. "Synthesis of Quantized Feedback Control Software for Discrete Time Linear Hybrid Systems." In Computer Aided Verification, edited by T. Touili, B. Cook and P. Jackson, 180–195. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 6174. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, 2010. DOI: 10.1007/9783642142956_20.
Abstract: We present an algorithm that given a Discrete Time Linear Hybrid System returns a correctbyconstruction software implementation K for a (near time optimal) robust quantized feedback controller for along with the set of states on which K is guaranteed to work correctly (controllable region). Furthermore, K has a Worst Case Execution Time linear in the number of bits of the quantization schema.



Andrea Bobbio, Ester Ciancamerla, Saverio Di Blasi, Alessandro Iacomini, Federico Mari, Igor Melatti, Michele Minichino, Alessandro Scarlatti, Enrico Tronci, Roberta Terruggia et al. "Risk analysis via heterogeneous models of SCADA interconnecting Power Grids and Telco networks." In Proceedings of Fourth International Conference on Risks and Security of Internet and Systems (CRiSIS), 90–97., 2009. DOI: 10.1109/CRISIS.2009.5411974.
Abstract: The automation of power grids by means of supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems has led to an improvement of power grid operations and functionalities but also to pervasive cyber interdependencies between power grids and telecommunication networks. Many power grid services are increasingly depending upon the adequate functionality of SCADA system which in turn strictly depends on the adequate functionality of its communication infrastructure. We propose to tackle the SCADA risk analysis by means of different and heterogeneous modeling techniques and software tools. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach through a case study on an actual SCADA system for an electrical power distribution grid. The modeling techniques we discuss aim at providing a probabilistic dependability analysis, followed by a worst case analysis in presence of malicious attacks and a realtime performance evaluation.

