
Vadim Alimguzhin, Federico Mari, Igor Melatti, Ivano Salvo, and Enrico Tronci. A MapReduce Parallel Approach to Automatic Synthesis of Control Software. Vol. abs/1210.2276. CoRR, Technical Report, 2012. http://arxiv.org/abs/1210.2276 (accessed October 14, 2024).
Abstract: Many Control Systems are indeed Software Based Control Systems, i.e. control systems whose controller consists of control software running on a microcontroller device. This motivates investigation on Formal Model Based Design approaches for automatic synthesis of control software.
Available algorithms and tools (e.g., QKS) may require weeks or even months of computation to synthesize control software for largesize systems. This motivates search for parallel algorithms for control software synthesis.
In this paper, we present a mapreduce style parallel algorithm for control software synthesis when the controlled system (plant) is modeled as discrete time linear hybrid system. Furthermore we present an MPIbased implementation PQKS of our algorithm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first parallel approach for control software synthesis.
We experimentally show effectiveness of PQKS on two classical control synthesis problems: the inverted pendulum and the multiinput buck DC/DC converter. Experiments show that PQKS efficiency is above 65%. As an example, PQKS requires about 16 hours to complete the synthesis of control software for the pendulum on a cluster with 60 processors, instead of the 25 days needed by the sequential algorithm in QKS.



Vadim Alimguzhin, Federico Mari, Igor Melatti, Ivano Salvo, and Enrico Tronci. On Model Based Synthesis of Embedded Control Software. Vol. abs/1207.4474. CoRR, Technical Report, 2012. http://arxiv.org/abs/1207.4474 (accessed October 14, 2024).
Abstract: Many Embedded Systems are indeed Software Based Control Systems (SBCSs), that is control systems whose controller consists of control software running on a microcontroller device. This motivates investigation on Formal Model Based Design approaches for control software. Given the formal model of a plant as a Discrete Time Linear Hybrid System and the implementation specifications (that is, number of bits in the AnalogtoDigital (AD) conversion) correctbyconstruction control software can be automatically generated from System Level Formal Specifications of the closed loop system (that is, safety and liveness requirements), by computing a suitable finite abstraction of the plant.
With respect to given implementation specifications, the automatically generated code implements a time optimal control strategy (in terms of setup time), has a Worst Case Execution Time linear in the number of AD bits $b$, but unfortunately, its size grows exponentially with respect to $b$. In many embedded systems, there are severe restrictions on the computational resources (such as memory or computational power) available to microcontroller devices.
This paper addresses model based synthesis of control software by trading system level nonfunctional requirements (such us optimal setup time, ripple) with software nonfunctional requirements (its footprint). Our experimental results show the effectiveness of our approach: for the inverted pendulum benchmark, by using a quantization schema with 12 bits, the size of the small controller is less than 6% of the size of the time optimal one.



Vadim Alimguzhin, Federico Mari, Igor Melatti, Ivano Salvo, and Enrico Tronci. Automatic Control Software Synthesis for Quantized Discrete Time Hybrid Systems. Vol. abs/1207.4098. CoRR, Technical Report, 2012. http://arxiv.org/abs/1207.4098 (accessed October 14, 2024).
Abstract: Many Embedded Systems are indeed Software Based Control Systems, that is control systems whose controller consists of control software running on a microcontroller device. This motivates investigation on Formal Model Based Design approaches for automatic synthesis of embedded systems control software. This paper addresses control software synthesis for discrete time nonlinear systems. We present a methodology to overapproximate the dynamics of a discrete time nonlinear hybrid system H by means of a discrete time linear hybrid system L(H), in such a way that controllers for L(H) are guaranteed to be controllers for H. We present experimental results on the inverted pendulum, a challenging and meaningful benchmark in nonlinear Hybrid Systems control.



Federico Mari, Igor Melatti, Ivano Salvo, and Enrico Tronci. Model Based Synthesis of Control Software from System Level Formal Specifications. Vol. abs/1107.5638. CoRR, Technical Report, 2013. http://arxiv.org/abs/1107.5638 (accessed October 14, 2024).
Abstract: Many Embedded Systems are indeed Software Based Control Systems, that is control systems whose controller consists of control software running on a microcontroller device. This motivates investigation on Formal Model Based Design approaches for automatic synthesis of embedded systems control software.
We present an algorithm, along with a tool QKS implementing it, that from a formal model (as a Discrete Time Linear Hybrid System) of the controlled system (plant), implementation specifications (that is, number of bits in the AnalogtoDigital, AD, conversion) and System Level Formal Specifications (that is, safety and liveness requirements for the closed loop system) returns correctbyconstruction control software that has a Worst Case Execution Time (WCET) linear in the number of AD bits and meets the given specifications.
We show feasibility of our approach by presenting experimental results on using it to synthesize control software for a buck DCDC converter, a widely used mixedmode analog circuit, and for the inverted pendulum.



Federico Mari, Igor Melatti, Ivano Salvo, and Enrico Tronci. From Boolean Functional Equations to Control Software. Vol. abs/1106.0468. CoRR, Technical Report, 2011. http://arxiv.org/abs/1106.0468 (accessed October 14, 2024).
Abstract: Many software as well digital hardware automatic synthesis methods define the set of implementations meeting the given system specifications with a boolean relation K. In such a context a fundamental step in the software (hardware) synthesis process is finding effective solutions to the functional equation defined by K. This entails finding a (set of) boolean function(s) F (typically represented using OBDDs, Ordered Binary Decision Diagrams) such that: 1) for all x for which K is satisfiable, K(x, F(x)) = 1 holds; 2) the implementation of F is efficient with respect to given implementation parameters such as code size or execution time. While this problem has been widely studied in digital hardware synthesis, little has been done in a software synthesis context. Unfortunately the approaches developed for hardware synthesis cannot be directly used in a software context. This motivates investigation of effective methods to solve the above problem when F has to be implemented with software. In this paper we present an algorithm that, from an OBDD representation for K, generates a C code implementation for F that has the same size as the OBDD for F and a WCET (Worst Case Execution Time) at most O(nr), being n = x the number of arguments of functions in F and r the number of functions in F.



Federico Mari, Igor Melatti, Ivano Salvo, and Enrico Tronci. Quantized Feedback Control Software Synthesis from System Level Formal Specifications for Buck DC/DC Converters. Vol. abs/1105.5640. CoRR, Technical Report, 2011. http://arxiv.org/abs/1105.5640 (accessed October 14, 2024).
Abstract: Many Embedded Systems are indeed Software Based Control Systems (SBCSs), that is control systems whose controller consists of control software running on a microcontroller device. This motivates investigation on Formal Model Based Design approaches for automatic synthesis of SBCS control software. In previous works we presented an algorithm, along with a tool QKS implementing it, that from a formal model (as a Discrete Time Linear Hybrid System, DTLHS) of the controlled system (plant), implementation specifications (that is, number of bits in the AnalogtoDigital, AD, conversion) and System Level Formal Specifications (that is, safety and liveness requirements for the closed loop system) returns correctbyconstruction control software that has a Worst Case Execution Time (WCET) linear in the number of AD bits and meets the given specifications. In this technical report we present full experimental results on using it to synthesize control software for two versions of buck DCDC converters (singleinput and multiinput), a widely used mixedmode analog circuit.



Ed Kuijpers, Luigi Carotenuto, Jean Cristophe Malapert, Daniela MarkovVetter, Igor Melatti, Andrea Orlandini, and Ranni Pinchuk. "Collaboration on ISS Experiment Data and Knowledge Representation." In Proc. of IAC 2012. Vol. D.5.11., 2012.



Federico Mari, Igor Melatti, Ivano Salvo, and Enrico Tronci. "Synthesizing Control Software from Boolean Relations." International Journal on Advances in Software vol. 5, nr 3&4 (2012): 212–223. IARIA. ISSN: 19422628.
Abstract: Many software as well digital hardware automatic
synthesis methods define the set of
implementations meeting the given system
specifications with a boolean relation K. In
such a context a fundamental step in the software
(hardware) synthesis process is finding effective
solutions to the functional equation defined by
K. This entails finding a (set of) boolean
function(s) F (typically represented using
OBDDs, Ordered Binary Decision Diagrams)
such that: 1) for all x for which K is
satisfiable, K(x, F(x)) = 1 holds; 2) the
implementation of F is efficient with respect
to given implementation parameters such as code
size or execution time. While this problem has
been widely studied in digital hardware synthesis,
little has been done in a software synthesis
context. Unfortunately, the approaches developed
for hardware synthesis cannot be directly used in
a software context. This motivates investigation
of effective methods to solve the above problem
when F has to be implemented with software. In
this paper, we present an algorithm that, from an
OBDD representation for K, generates a C code
implementation for F that has the same size as
the OBDD for F and a worst case execution time
linear in nr, being n = x the number of
input arguments for functions in F and r the
number of functions in F. Moreover, a formal
proof of the proposed algorithm correctness is
also shown. Finally, we present experimental
results showing effectiveness of the proposed
algorithm.
Keywords: Control Software Synthesis; Embedded Systems; Model Checking



Federico Mari, Igor Melatti, Enrico Tronci, and Alberto Finzi. "A multihop advertising discovery and delivering protocol for multi administrative domain MANET." Mobile Information Systems 3, no. 9 (2013): 261–280. IOS Press. ISSN: 1574017x (Print) 1875905X (Online). DOI: 10.3233/MIS130162.



Federico Mari, Igor Melatti, Ivano Salvo, and Enrico Tronci. "Model Based Synthesis of Control Software from System Level Formal Specifications." ACM TRANSACTIONS ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING AND METHODOLOGY 23, no. 1 (2014): Article 6. ACM. ISSN: 1049331X. DOI: 10.1145/2559934.

