
I. Melatti, F. Mari, T. Mancini, M. Prodanovic, and E. Tronci. "A TwoLayer NearOptimal Strategy for Substation Constraint Management via Home Batteries." IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics (2021): 1. Notes: To appear. DOI: 10.1109/TIE.2021.3102431.
Abstract: Within electrical distribution networks, substation constraints management requires that aggregated power demand from residential users is kept within suitable bounds. Efficiency of substation constraints management can be measured as the reduction of constraints violations w.r.t. unmanaged demand. Home batteries hold the promise of enabling efficient and useroblivious substation constraints management. Centralized control of home batteries would achieve optimal efficiency. However, it is hardly acceptable by users, since service providers (e.g., utilities or aggregators) would directly control batteries at user premises. Unfortunately, devising efficient hierarchical control strategies, thus overcoming the above problem, is far from easy. We present a novel twolayer control strategy for home batteries that avoids direct control of home devices by the service provider and at the same time yields nearoptimal substation constraints management efficiency. Our simulation results on field data from 62 households in Denmark show that the substation constraints management efficiency achieved with our approach is at least 82% of the one obtained with a theoretical optimal centralized strategy.



T. Mancini, I. Melatti, and E. Tronci. "Anyhorizon uniform random sampling and enumeration of constrained scenarios for simulationbased formal verification." IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering (2021): 1. ISSN: 19393520. Notes: To appear. DOI: 10.1109/TSE.2021.3109842.
Abstract: Modelbased approaches to the verification of nonterminating CyberPhysical Systems (CPSs) usually rely on numerical simulation of the System Under Verification (SUV) model under input scenarios of possibly varying duration, chosen among those satisfying given constraints. Such constraints typically stem from requirements (or assumptions) on the SUV inputs and its operational environment as well as from the enforcement of additional conditions aiming at, e.g., prioritising the (often extremely long) verification activity, by, e.g., focusing on scenarios explicitly exercising selected requirements, or avoiding </i>vacuity</i> in their satisfaction. In this setting, the possibility to efficiently sample at random (with a known distribution, e.g., uniformly) within, or to efficiently enumerate (possibly in a uniformly random order) scenarios among those satisfying all the given constraints is a key enabler for the practical viability of the verification process, e.g., via simulationbased statistical model checking. Unfortunately, in case of nontrivial combinations of constraints, iterative approaches like Markovian random walks in the space of sequences of inputs in general fail in extracting scenarios according to a given distribution (e.g., uniformly), and can be very inefficient to produce at all scenarios that are both legal (with respect to SUV assumptions) and of interest (with respect to the additional constraints). For example, in our case studies, up to 91% of the scenarios generated using such iterative approaches would need to be neglected. In this article, we show how, given a set of constraints on the input scenarios succinctly defined by multiple finite memory monitors, a data structure (scenario generator) can be synthesised, from which anyhorizon scenarios satisfying the input constraints can be efficiently extracted by (possibly uniform) random sampling or (randomised) enumeration. Our approach enables seamless support to virtually all simulationbased approaches to CPS verification, ranging from simple random testing to statistical model checking and formal (i.e., exhaustive) verification, when a suitable bound on the horizon or an iterative horizon enlargement strategy is defined, as in the spirit of bounded model checking.



G. Dipoppa, G. D'Alessandro, R. Semprini, and E. Tronci. "Integrating Automatic Verification of Safety Requirements in Railway Interlocking System Design." In High Assurance Systems Engineering, 2001. Sixth IEEE International Symposium on, 209–219. Albuquerque, NM, USA: IEEE Computer Society, 2001. ISSN: 0769512755. DOI: 10.1109/HASE.2001.966821.
Abstract: A railway interlocking system (RIS) is an embedded system (namely a supervisory control system) that ensures the safe, operation of the devices in a railway station. RIS is a safety critical system. We explore the possibility of integrating automatic formal verification methods in a given industry RIS design flow. The main obstructions to be overcome in our work are: selecting a formal verification tool that is efficient enough to solve the verification problems at hand; and devising a cost effective integration strategy for such tool. We were able to devise a successful integration strategy meeting the above constraints without requiring major modification in the preexistent design flow nor retraining of personnel. We run verification experiments for a RIS designed for the Singapore Subway. The experiments show that the RIS design flow obtained from our integration strategy is able to automatically verify real life RIS designs.



Enrico Tronci. "Equational Programming in lambdacalculus." In Sixth Annual IEEE Symposium on Logic in Computer Science (LICS), 191–202. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: IEEE Computer Society, 1991. DOI: 10.1109/LICS.1991.151644.



Giuseppe Della Penna, Antinisca Di Marco, Benedetto Intrigila, Igor Melatti, and Alfonso Pierantonio. "Interoperability mapping from XML schemas to ER diagrams." Data Knowl. Eng. 59, no. 1 (2006): 166–188. Elsevier Science Publishers B. V.. ISSN: 0169023x. DOI: 10.1016/j.datak.2005.08.002.
Abstract: The eXtensible Markup Language (XML) is a de facto standard on the Internet and is now being used to exchange a variety of data structures. This leads to the problem of efficiently storing, querying and retrieving a great amount of data contained in XML documents. Unfortunately, XML data often need to coexist with historical data. At present, the best solution for storing XML into preexisting data structures is to extract the information from the XML documents and adapt it to the data structuresÃ¢â‚¬â„¢ logical model (e.g., the relational model of a DBMS). In this paper, we introduce a technique called Xere (XML entityÃ‚â€“relationship exchange) to assist the integration of XML data with other data sources. To this aim, we present an algorithm that maps XML schemas into entityÃ‚â€“relationship diagrams, discuss its soundness and completeness and show its implementation in XSLT.



Giuseppe Della Penna, Benedetto Intrigila, Igor Melatti, Enrico Tronci, and Marisa Venturini Zilli. "Finite horizon analysis of Markov Chains with the Mur$\varphi$ verifier." Int. J. Softw. Tools Technol. Transf. 8, no. 4 (2006): 397–409. SpringerVerlag. ISSN: 14332779. DOI: 10.1007/s1000900502167.
Abstract: In this paper we present an explicit diskbased verification algorithm for Probabilistic Systems defining discrete time/finite state Markov Chains. Given a Markov Chain and an integer k (horizon), our algorithm checks whether the probability of reaching an error state in at most k steps is below a given threshold. We present an implementation of our algorithm within a suitable extension of the Mur$\varphi$ verifier. We call the resulting probabilistic model checker FHPMur$\varphi$ (Finite Horizon Probabilistic Mur$\varphi$). We present experimental results comparing FHPMur$\varphi$ with (a finite horizon subset of) PRISM, a stateoftheart symbolic model checker for Markov Chains. Our experimental results show that FHPMur$\varphi$ can handle systems that are out of reach for PRISM, namely those involving arithmetic operations on the state variables (e.g. hybrid systems).



Igor Melatti, Robert Palmer, Geoffrey Sawaya, Yu Yang, Robert Mike Kirby, and Ganesh Gopalakrishnan. "Parallel and distributed model checking in Eddy." Int. J. Softw. Tools Technol. Transf. 11, no. 1 (2009): 13–25. SpringerVerlag. ISSN: 14332779. DOI: 10.1007/s100090080094x.
Abstract: Model checking of safety properties can be scaled up by pooling the CPU and memory resources of multiple computers. As compute clusters containing 100s of nodes, with each node realized using multicore (e.g., 2) CPUs will be widespread, a model checker based on the parallel (shared memory) and distributed (message passing) paradigms will more efficiently use the hardware resources. Such a model checker can be designed by having each node employ two shared memory threads that run on the (typically) two CPUs of a node, with one thread responsible for state generation, and the other for efficient communication, including (1) performing overlapped asynchronous message passing, and (2) aggregating the states to be sent into larger chunks in order to improve communication network utilization. We present the design details of such a novel model checking architecture called Eddy. We describe the design rationale, details of how the threads interact and yield control, exchange messages, as well as detect termination. We have realized an instance of this architecture for the Murphi modeling language. Called Eddy_Murphi, we report its performance over the number of nodes as well as communication parameters such as those controlling state aggregation. Nearly linear reduction of compute time with increasing number of nodes is observed. Our thread task partition is done in such a way that it is modular, easy to port across different modeling languages, and easy to tune across a variety of platforms.



Alessandro Fantechi, Stefania Gnesi, Franco Mazzanti, Rosario Pugliese, and Enrico Tronci. "A Symbolic Model Checker for ACTL." In International Workshop on Current Trends in Applied Formal Method (FMTrends), edited by D. Hutter, W. Stephan, P. Traverso and M. Ullmann, 228–242. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 1641. Boppard, Germany: Springer, 1998. ISSN: 3540664629. DOI: 10.1007/3540482571_14.
Abstract: We present SAM, a symbolic model checker for ACTL, the actionbased version of CTL. SAM relies on implicit representations of Labeled Transition Systems (LTSs), the semantic domain for ACTL formulae, and uses symbolic manipulation algorithms. SAM has been realized by translating (networks of) LTSs and, possibly recursive, ACTL formulae into BSP (Boolean Symbolic Programming), a programming language aiming at defining computations on boolean functions, and by using the BSP interpreter to carry out computations (i.e. verifications).



Enrico Tronci. "Automatic Synthesis of Controllers from Formal Specifications." In Proc of 2nd IEEE International Conference on Formal Engineering Methods (ICFEM), 134–143. Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, 1998. DOI: 10.1109/ICFEM.1998.730577.
Abstract: Many safety critical reactive systems are indeed embedded control systems. Usually a control system can be partitioned into two main subsystems: a controller and a plant. Roughly speaking: the controller observes the state of the plant and sends commands (stimulus) to the plant to achieve predefined goals. We show that when the plant can be modeled as a deterministic finite state system (FSS) it is possible to effectively use formal methods to automatically synthesize the program implementing the controller from the plant model and the given formal specifications for the closed loop system (plant+controller). This guarantees that the controller program is correct by construction. To the best of our knowledge there is no previously published effective algorithm to extract executable code for the controller from closed loop formal specifications. We show practical usefulness of our techniques by giving experimental results on their use to synthesize C programs implementing optimal controllers (OCs) for plants with more than 109 states.



Marco Gribaudo, Andras HorvÃ¡th, Andrea Bobbio, Enrico Tronci, Ester Ciancamerla, and Michele Minichino. "ModelChecking Based on Fluid Petri Nets for the Temperature Control System of the ICARO Cogenerative Plant." In 21st International Conference on Computer Safety, Reliability and Security (SAFECOMP), edited by S. Anderson, S. Bologna and M. Felici, 273–283. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2434. Catania, Italy: Springer, 2002. ISSN: 3540441573. DOI: 10.1007/3540457321_27.
Abstract: The modeling and analysis of hybrid systems is a recent and challenging research area which is actually dominated by two main lines: a functional analysis based on the description of the system in terms of discrete state (hybrid) automata (whose goal is to ascertain for conformity and reachability properties), and a stochastic analysis (whose aim is to provide performance and dependability measures). This paper investigates a unifying view between formal methods and stochastic methods by proposing an analysis methodology of hybrid systems based on Fluid Petri Nets (FPN). It is shown that the same FPN model can be fed to a functional analyser for model checking as well as to a stochastic analyser for performance evaluation. We illustrate our approach and show its usefulness by applying it to a Ã¢â‚¬Å“real worldÃ¢â‚¬Â¯ hybrid system: the temperature control system of a cogenerative plant.

