Marco Gribaudo, Andras HorvÃ¡th, Andrea Bobbio, Enrico Tronci, Ester Ciancamerla, and Michele Minichino. "Fluid Petri Nets and hybrid model checking: a comparative case study." Int. Journal on: Reliability Engineering & System Safety 81, no. 3 (2003): 239–257. Elsevier. DOI: 10.1016/S09518320(03)000899.
Abstract: The modeling and analysis of hybrid systems is a recent and challenging research area which is actually dominated by two main lines: a functional analysis based on the description of the system in terms of discrete state (hybrid) automata (whose goal is to ascertain conformity and reachability properties), and a stochastic analysis (whose aim is to provide performance and dependability measures). This paper investigates a unifying view between formal methods and stochastic methods by proposing an analysis methodology of hybrid systems based on Fluid Petri Nets (FPNs). FPNs can be analyzed directly using appropriate tools. Our paper shows that the same FPN model can be fed to different functional analyzers for model checking. In order to extensively explore the capability of the technique, we have converted the original FPN into languages for discrete as well as hybrid as well as stochastic model checkers. In this way, a first comparison among the modeling power of well known tools can be carried out. Our approach is illustrated by means of a Ã¢â‚¬â„¢real worldÃ¢â‚¬â„¢ hybrid system: the temperature control system of a cogenerative plant.

Roberto Gorrieri, Ruggero Lanotte, Andrea MaggioloSchettini, Fabio Martinelli, Simone Tini, and Enrico Tronci. "Automated analysis of timed security: a case study on web privacy." International Journal of Information Security 2, no. 34 (2004): 168–186. DOI: 10.1007/s1020700400379.
Abstract: This paper presents a case study on an automated analysis of realtime security models. The case study on a web system (originally proposed by Felten and Schneider) is presented that shows a timing attack on the privacy of browser users. Three different approaches are followed: LHTimed Automata (analyzed using the model checker HyTech), finitestate automata (analyzed using the model checker NuSMV), and process algebras (analyzed using the model checker CWBNC). A comparative analysis of these three approaches is given.

Federico Mari, Igor Melatti, Ivano Salvo, and Enrico Tronci. "Synthesizing Control Software from Boolean Relations." International Journal on Advances in Software vol. 5, nr 3&4 (2012): 212–223. IARIA. ISSN: 19422628.
Abstract: Many software as well digital hardware automatic
synthesis methods define the set of
implementations meeting the given system
specifications with a boolean relation K. In
such a context a fundamental step in the software
(hardware) synthesis process is finding effective
solutions to the functional equation defined by
K. This entails finding a (set of) boolean
function(s) F (typically represented using
OBDDs, Ordered Binary Decision Diagrams)
such that: 1) for all x for which K is
satisfiable, K(x, F(x)) = 1 holds; 2) the
implementation of F is efficient with respect
to given implementation parameters such as code
size or execution time. While this problem has
been widely studied in digital hardware synthesis,
little has been done in a software synthesis
context. Unfortunately, the approaches developed
for hardware synthesis cannot be directly used in
a software context. This motivates investigation
of effective methods to solve the above problem
when F has to be implemented with software. In
this paper, we present an algorithm that, from an
OBDD representation for K, generates a C code
implementation for F that has the same size as
the OBDD for F and a worst case execution time
linear in nr, being n = x the number of
input arguments for functions in F and r the
number of functions in F. Moreover, a formal
proof of the proposed algorithm correctness is
also shown. Finally, we present experimental
results showing effectiveness of the proposed
algorithm.
Keywords: Control Software Synthesis; Embedded Systems; Model Checking

Federico Mari, Igor Melatti, Ivano Salvo, and Enrico Tronci. "Linear Constraints and Guarded Predicates as a Modeling Language for Discrete Time Hybrid Systems." International Journal on Advances in Software vol. 6, nr 1&2 (2013): 155–169. IARIA. ISSN: 19422628.
Abstract: Model based design is particularly appealing in
software based control systems (e.g., embedded
software) design, since in such a case system
level specifications are much easier to define
than the control software behavior itself. In
turn, model based design of embedded systems
requires modeling both continuous subsystems
(typically, the plant) as well as discrete
subsystems (the controller). This is typically
done using hybrid systems. Mixed Integer Linear
Programming (MILP) based abstraction techniques
have been successfully applied to automatically
synthesize correctbyconstruction control
software for discrete time linear hybrid systems,
where plant dynamics is modeled as a linear
predicate over state, input, and next state
variables. Unfortunately, MILP solvers require
such linear predicates to be conjunctions of
linear constraints, which is not a natural way of
modeling hybrid systems. In this paper we show
that, under the hypothesis that each variable
ranges over a bounded interval, any linear
predicate built upon conjunction and disjunction
of linear constraints can be automatically
translated into an equivalent conjunctive
predicate. Since variable bounds play a key role
in this translation, our algorithm includes a
procedure to compute all implicit variable bounds
of the given linear predicate. Furthermore, we
show that a particular form of linear predicates,
namely guarded predicates, are a natural and
powerful language to succinctly model discrete
time linear hybrid systems dynamics. Finally, we
experimentally show the feasibility of our
approach on an important and challenging case
study taken from the literature, namely the
multiinput Buck DCDC Converter. As an example,
the guarded predicate that models (with 57
constraints) a 6inputs Buck DCDC Converter is
translated in a conjunctive predicate (with 102
linear constraints) in about 40 minutes.
Keywords: Modelbased software design; Linear predicates; Hybrid systems

Toni Mancini, Enrico Tronci, Ivano Salvo, Federico Mari, Annalisa Massini, and Igor Melatti. "Computing Biological Model Parameters by Parallel Statistical Model Checking." International Work Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering (IWBBIO 2015) 9044 (2015): 542–554. DOI: 10.1007/9783319164809_52.

Alessandro Fantechi, Stefania Gnesi, Franco Mazzanti, Rosario Pugliese, and Enrico Tronci. "A Symbolic Model Checker for ACTL." In International Workshop on Current Trends in Applied Formal Method (FMTrends), edited by D. Hutter, W. Stephan, P. Traverso and M. Ullmann, 228–242. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 1641. Boppard, Germany: Springer, 1998. ISSN: 3540664629. DOI: 10.1007/3540482571_14.
Abstract: We present SAM, a symbolic model checker for ACTL, the actionbased version of CTL. SAM relies on implicit representations of Labeled Transition Systems (LTSs), the semantic domain for ACTL formulae, and uses symbolic manipulation algorithms. SAM has been realized by translating (networks of) LTSs and, possibly recursive, ACTL formulae into BSP (Boolean Symbolic Programming), a programming language aiming at defining computations on boolean functions, and by using the BSP interpreter to carry out computations (i.e. verifications).

Enrico Tronci. "Defining Data Structures via BÃ¶hmOut." J. Funct. Program. 5, no. 1 (1995): 51–64. DOI: 10.1017/S0956796800001234.
Abstract: We show that any recursively enumerable subset of a data structure can be regarded as the solution set to a B??hmout problem.

T. Mancini, F. Mari, A. Massini, I. Melatti, and E. Tronci. "On Checking Equivalence of Simulation Scripts." Journal of Logical and Algebraic Methods in Programming (2021): 100640. ISSN: 23522208. DOI: 10.1016/j.jlamp.2021.100640.
Abstract: To support Model Based Design of CyberPhysical Systems (CPSs) many simulation based approaches to System Level Formal Verification (SLFV) have been devised. Basically, these are Bounded Model Checking approaches (since simulation horizon is of course bounded) relying on simulators to compute the system dynamics and thereby verify the given system properties. The main obstacle to simulation based SLFV is the large number of simulation scenarios to be considered and thus the huge amount of simulation time needed to complete the verification task. To save on computation time, simulation based SLFV approaches exploit the capability of simulators to save and restore simulation states. Essentially, such a time saving is obtained by optimising the simulation script defining the simulation activity needed to carry out the verification task. Although such approaches aim to (bounded) formal verification, as a matter of fact, the proof of correctness of the methods to optimise simulation scripts basically relies on an intuitive semantics for simulation scripting languages. This hampers the possibility of formally showing that the optimisations introduced to speed up the simulation activity do not actually omit checking of relevant behaviours for the system under verification. The aim of this paper is to fill the above gap by presenting an operational semantics for simulation scripting languages and by proving soundness and completeness properties for it. This, in turn, enables formal proofs of equivalence between unoptimised and optimised simulation scripts.
Keywords: Formal verification, Simulation based formal verification, Formal Verification of cyberphysical systems, Systemlevel formal verification

M. P. Hengartner, T. H. C. Kruger, K. Geraedts, E. Tronci, T. Mancini, F. Ille, M. Egli, S. RÃ¶blitz, R. Ehrig, L. Saleh et al. "Negative affect is unrelated to fluctuations in hormone levels across the menstrual cycle: Evidence from a multisite observational study across two successive cycles." Journal of Psychosomatic Research 99 (2017): 21–27. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2017.05.018.

Amedeo Cesta, Alberto Finzi, Simone Fratini, Andrea Orlandini, and Enrico Tronci. "Flexible TimelineBased Plan Verification." In KI 2009: Advances in Artificial Intelligence, 32nd Annual German Conference on AI, Paderborn, Germany, September 1518, 2009. Proceedings, edited by B. Ã. ¤rbel Mertsching, M. Hund and M. Z. Aziz, 49–56. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 5803. Springer, 2009. ISSN: 9783642046162. DOI: 10.1007/9783642046179_7.
