Federico Cavaliere, Federico Mari, Igor Melatti, Giovanni Minei, Ivano Salvo, Enrico Tronci, Giovanni Verzino, and Yuri Yushtein. "Model Checking Satellite Operational Procedures." In DAta Systems In Aerospace (DASIA), Org. EuroSpace, Canadian Space Agency, CNES, ESA, EUMETSAT. San Anton, Malta, EuroSpace., 2011.
Abstract: We present a model checking approach for the automatic verification of satellite operational procedures (OPs). Building a model for a complex system as a satellite is a hard task. We overcome this obstruction by using a suitable simulator (SIMSAT) for the satellite. Our approach aims at improving OP quality assurance by automatic exhaustive exploration of all possible simulation scenarios. Moreover, our solution decreases OP verification costs by using a model checker (CMurphi) to automatically drive the simulator. We model OPs as userexecuted programs observing the simulator telemetries and sending telecommands to the simulator. In order to assess feasibility of our approach we present experimental results on a simple meaningful scenario. Our results show that we can save up to 90% of verification time.

Federico Mari, Igor Melatti, Ivano Salvo, and Enrico Tronci. "From Boolean Relations to Control Software." In Proceedings of ICSEA 2011, The Sixth International Conference on Software Engineering Advances, 528–533. ThinkMind, 2011. ISSN: 9781612081656. Notes: Best Paper Award.
Abstract: Many software as well digital hardware automatic synthesis methods define the set of implementations meeting the given system specifications with a boolean relation K. In such a context a fundamental step in the software (hardware) synthesis process is finding effective solutions to the functional equation defined by K. This entails finding a (set of) boolean function(s) F (typically represented using OBDDs, Ordered Binary Decision Diagrams) such that: 1) for all x for which K is satisfiable, K(x, F(x)) = 1 holds; 2) the implementation of F is efficient with respect to given implementation parameters such as code size or execution time. While this problem has been widely studied in digital hardware synthesis, little has been done in a software synthesis context. Unfortunately the approaches developed for hardware synthesis cannot be directly used in a software context. This motivates investigation of effective methods to solve the above problem when F has to be implemented with software. In this paper we present an algorithm that, from an OBDD representation for K, generates a C code implementation for F that has the same size as the OBDD for F and a WCET (Worst Case Execution Time) linear in nr, being n = x the number of input arguments for functions in F and r the number of functions in F.

Amedeo Cesta, Simone Fratini, Andrea Orlandini, Alberto Finzi, and Enrico Tronci. "Flexible Plan Verification: Feasibility Results." Fundamenta Informaticae 107, no. 2 (2011): 111–137. DOI: 10.3233/FI2011397.

Federico Mari, Igor Melatti, Ivano Salvo, and Enrico Tronci. "Synthesis of Quantized Feedback Control Software for Discrete Time Linear Hybrid Systems." In Computer Aided Verification, edited by T. Touili, B. Cook and P. Jackson, 180–195. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 6174. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, 2010. DOI: 10.1007/9783642142956_20.
Abstract: We present an algorithm that given a Discrete Time Linear Hybrid System returns a correctbyconstruction software implementation K for a (near time optimal) robust quantized feedback controller for along with the set of states on which K is guaranteed to work correctly (controllable region). Furthermore, K has a Worst Case Execution Time linear in the number of bits of the quantization schema.

Andrea Bobbio, Ester Ciancamerla, Saverio Di Blasi, Alessandro Iacomini, Federico Mari, Igor Melatti, Michele Minichino, Alessandro Scarlatti, Enrico Tronci, Roberta Terruggia et al. "Risk analysis via heterogeneous models of SCADA interconnecting Power Grids and Telco networks." In Proceedings of Fourth International Conference on Risks and Security of Internet and Systems (CRiSIS), 90–97., 2009. DOI: 10.1109/CRISIS.2009.5411974.
Abstract: The automation of power grids by means of supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems has led to an improvement of power grid operations and functionalities but also to pervasive cyber interdependencies between power grids and telecommunication networks. Many power grid services are increasingly depending upon the adequate functionality of SCADA system which in turn strictly depends on the adequate functionality of its communication infrastructure. We propose to tackle the SCADA risk analysis by means of different and heterogeneous modeling techniques and software tools. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach through a case study on an actual SCADA system for an electrical power distribution grid. The modeling techniques we discuss aim at providing a probabilistic dependability analysis, followed by a worst case analysis in presence of malicious attacks and a realtime performance evaluation.

Amedeo Cesta, Alberto Finzi, Simone Fratini, Andrea Orlandini, and Enrico Tronci. "Validation and verification issues in a timelinebased planning system." The Knowledge Engineering Review 25, no. 03 (2010): 299–318. Cambridge University Press. DOI: 10.1017/S0269888910000160.
Abstract: One of the key points to take into account to foster effective introduction of AI planning and scheduling systems in real world is to develop end user trust in the related technologies. Automated planning and scheduling systems often brings solutions to the users which are neither Ã¢â‚¬Å“obviousÃ¢â‚¬Âť nor immediately acceptable for them. This is due to the ability of these tools to take into account quite an amount of temporal and causal constraints and to employ resolution processes often designed to optimize the solution with respect to non trivial evaluation functions. To increase technology trust, the study of tools for verifying and validating plans and schedules produced by AI systems might be instrumental. In general, validation and verification techniques represent a needed complementary technology in developing domain independent architectures for automated problem solving. This paper presents a preliminary report of the issues concerned with the use of two software tools for formal verification of finite state systems to the validation of the solutions produced by MrSPOCK, a recent effort for building a timeline based planning tool in an ESA project.

Federico Mari, Igor Melatti, Ivano Salvo, Enrico Tronci, Lorenzo Alvisi, Allen Clement, and Harry Li. "Model Checking Coalition Nash Equilibria in MAD Distributed Systems." In Stabilization, Safety, and Security of Distributed Systems, 11th International Symposium, SSS 2009, Lyon, France, November 36, 2009. Proceedings, edited by R. Guerraoui and F. Petit, 531–546. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 5873. Springer, 2009. DOI: 10.1007/9783642051180_37.
Abstract: We present two OBDD based model checking algorithms for the verification of Nash equilibria in finite state mechanisms modeling Multiple Administrative Domains (MAD) distributed systems with possibly colluding agents (coalitions) and with possibly faulty or malicious nodes (Byzantine agents). Given a finite state mechanism, a proposed protocol for each agent and the maximum sizes f for Byzantine agents and q for agents collusions, our model checkers return Pass if the proposed protocol is an εfqNash equilibrium, i.e. no coalition of size up to q may have an interest greater than ε in deviating from the proposed protocol when up to f Byzantine agents are present, Fail otherwise. We implemented our model checking algorithms within the NuSMV model checker: the first one explicitly checks equilibria for each coalition, while the second represents symbolically all coalitions. We present experimental results showing their effectiveness for moderate size mechanisms. For example, we can verify coalition Nash equilibria for mechanisms which corresponding normal form games would have more than $5 \times 10^21$ entries. Moreover, we compare the two approaches, and the explicit algorithm turns out to outperform the symbolic one. To the best of our knowledge, no model checking algorithm for verification of Nash equilibria of mechanisms with coalitions has been previously published.

Silvia Mazzini, Stefano Puri, Federico Mari, Igor Melatti, and Enrico Tronci. "Formal Verification at System Level." In In: DAta Systems In Aerospace (DASIA), Org. EuroSpace, Canadian Space Agency, CNES, ESA, EUMETSAT. Instanbul, Turkey, EuroSpace., 2009.
Abstract: System Level Analysis calls for a language comprehensible to experts with different background and yet precise enough to support meaningful analyses. SysML is emerging as an effective balance between such conflicting goals. In this paper we outline some the results obtained as for SysML based system level functional formal verification by an ESA/ESTEC study, with a collaboration among INTECS and La Sapienza University of Roma. The study focuses on SysML based system level functional requirements techniques.

Amedeo Cesta, Alberto Finzi, Simone Fratini, Andrea Orlandini, and Enrico Tronci. "Flexible TimelineBased Plan Verification." In KI 2009: Advances in Artificial Intelligence, 32nd Annual German Conference on AI, Paderborn, Germany, September 1518, 2009. Proceedings, edited by B. Ã. ¤rbel Mertsching, M. Hund and M. Z. Aziz, 49–56. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 5803. Springer, 2009. ISSN: 9783642046162. DOI: 10.1007/9783642046179_7.

Amedeo Cesta, Alberto Finzi, Simone Fratini, Andrea Orlandini, and Enrico Tronci. "Flexible Plan Verification: Feasibility Results." In 16th RCRA International Workshop on “Experimental evaluation of algorithms for solving problems with combinatorial explosion” (RCRA). Proceedings., 2009.
