Benedetto Intrigila, Ivano Salvo, and Stefano Sorgi. "A characterization of weakly ChurchRosser abstract reduction systems that are not ChurchRosser." Information and Computation 171, no. 2 (2001): 137–155. Academic Press, Inc.. ISSN: 08905401. DOI: 10.1006/inco.2001.2945.
Abstract: Basic properties of rewriting systems can be stated in the framework of abstract reduction systems (ARS). Properties like confluence (or ChurchRosser, CR) and weak confluence (or weak ChurchRosser, WCR) and their relationships can be studied in this setting: as a matter of fact, wellknown counterexamples to the implication WCR CR have been formulated as ARS. In this paper, starting from the observation that such counterexamples are structurally similar, we set out a graphtheoretic characterization of WCR ARS that is not CR in terms of a suitable class of reduction graphs, such that in every WCR not CR ARS, we can embed at least one element of this class. Moreover, we give a tighter characterization for a restricted class of ARS enjoying a suitable regularity condition. Finally, as a consequence of our approach, we prove some interesting results about ARS using the mathematical tools developed. In particular, we prove an extension of the NewmanÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s lemma and we find out conditions that, once assumed together with WCR property, ensure the unique normal form property. The Appendix treats two interesting examples, both generated by graphrewriting rules, with specific combinatorial properties.

Antonio Bucciarelli, Adolfo Piperno, and Ivano Salvo. "Intersection types and λdefinability." Mathematical Structures in Computer Science 13, no. 1 (2003): 15–53. Cambridge University Press. ISSN: 09601295. DOI: 10.1017/S0960129502003833.
Abstract: This paper presents a novel method for comparing computational properties of λterms that are typeable with intersection types, with respect to terms that are typeable with Curry types. We introduce a translation from intersection typing derivations to Curry typeable terms that is preserved by βreduction: this allows the simulation of a computation starting from a term typeable in the intersection discipline by means of a computation starting from a simply typeable term. Our approach proves strong normalisation for the intersection system naturally by means of purely syntactical techniques. The paper extends the results presented in Bucciarelli et al. (1999) to the whole intersection type system of Barendregt, Coppo and Dezani, thus providing a complete proof of the conjecture, proposed in Leivant (1990), that all functions uniformly definable using intersection types are already definable using Curry types.

Antonio Bucciarelli, and Ivano Salvo. "Totality, Definability and Boolean Circuits." 1443 (1998): 808–819. Springer. DOI: 10.1007/BFb0055104.
Abstract: In the type frame originating from the flat domain of boolean values, we single out elements which are hereditarily total. We show that these elements can be defined, up to total equivalence, by sequential programs. The elements of an equivalence class of the totality equivalence relation (totality class) can be seen as different algorithms for computing a given settheoretic boolean function. We show that the bottom element of a totality class, which is sequential, corresponds to the most eager algorithm, and the top to the laziest one. Finally we suggest a link between size of totality classes and a well known measure of complexity of boolean functions, namely their sensitivity.

Antonio Bucciarelli, Silvia de Lorenzis, Adolfo Piperno, and Ivano Salvo. "Some Computational Properties of Intersection Types (Extended Abstract)." (1999): 109–118. IEEE Computer Society. DOI: 10.1109/LICS.1999.782598.
Abstract: This paper presents a new method for comparing computationproperties of λterms typeable with intersection types with respect to terms typeable with Curry types. In particular, strong normalization and λdefinability are investigated. A translation is introduced from intersection typing derivations to Curry typeable terms; the main feature of the proposed technique is that the translation is preserved by βreduction. This allows to simulate a computation starting from a term typeable in the intersection discipline by means of a computation starting from a simply typeable term. Our approach naturally leads to prove strong normalization in the intersection system by means of purely syntactical techniques. In addition, the presented method enables us to give a proof of a conjecture proposed by Leivant in 1990, namely that all functions uniformly definable using intersection types are already definable using Curry types.
Keywords: lambda calculusCurry types, intersection types, lambdadefinability, lambdaterms, strong normalization

V. Bono, and I. Salvo. "A CuCh Interpretation of an ObjectOriented Language." Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science 50, no. 2 (2001): 159–177. Elsevier. Notes: BOTH 2001, BohmĂ˘â‚¬â„˘s theorem: applications to Computer Science Theory (Satellite Workshop of ICALP 2001). DOI: 10.1016/S15710661(04)001719.
Abstract: CuCh machine extends pure lambdaÃ‚â€“calculus with algebraic data types and provides a the possibility of defining functions over the disjoint sum of algebras. We exploit such natural form of overloading to define a functional interpretation of a simple, but significant fragment of a typical objectoriented language.

Franco Barbanera, Mariangiola DezaniCiancaglini, Ivano Salvo, and Vladimiro Sassone. "A Type Inference Algorithm for Secure Ambients." Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science 62 (2002): 83–101. Elsevier. Notes: TOSCA 2001, Theory of Concurrency, Higher Order Languages and Types. DOI: 10.1016/S15710661(04)003214.
Abstract: We consider a type discipline for the Ambient Calculus that associates ambients with security levels and constrains them to be traversed by or opened in ambients of higher security clearance only. We present a bottomup algorithm that, given an untyped process P, computes a minimal set of constraints on security levels such that all actions during runs of P are performed without violating the security level priorities. Such an algorithm appears to be a prerequisite to use type systems to ensure security properties in the web scenario.

Mario Coppo, Mariangiola DezaniCiancaglini, Elio Giovannetti, and Ivano Salvo. "Mobility Types for Mobile Processes in Mobile Ambients." Electr. Notes Theor. Comput. Sci. 78 (2003). DOI: 10.1016/S15710661(04)810119.
Abstract: We present an ambientlike calculus in which the open capability is dropped, and a new form of Ã¢â‚¬Å“lightweightÃ¢â‚¬Âť process mobility is introduced. The calculus comes equipped with a type system that allows the kind of values exchanged in communications and the access and mobility properties of processes to be controlled. A type inference procedure determines the Ã¢â‚¬Å“minimalÃ¢â‚¬Âť requirements to accept a system or a component as well typed. This gives a kind of principal typing. As an expressiveness test, we show that some well known calculi of concurrency and mobility can be encoded in our calculus in a natural way.

Giuseppe Della Penna, Benedetto Intrigila, Igor Melatti, Enrico Tronci, and Marisa Venturini Zilli. "Finite horizon analysis of Markov Chains with the Mur$\varphi$ verifier." Int. J. Softw. Tools Technol. Transf. 8, no. 4 (2006): 397–409. SpringerVerlag. ISSN: 14332779. DOI: 10.1007/s1000900502167.
Abstract: In this paper we present an explicit diskbased verification algorithm for Probabilistic Systems defining discrete time/finite state Markov Chains. Given a Markov Chain and an integer k (horizon), our algorithm checks whether the probability of reaching an error state in at most k steps is below a given threshold. We present an implementation of our algorithm within a suitable extension of the Mur$\varphi$ verifier. We call the resulting probabilistic model checker FHPMur$\varphi$ (Finite Horizon Probabilistic Mur$\varphi$). We present experimental results comparing FHPMur$\varphi$ with (a finite horizon subset of) PRISM, a stateoftheart symbolic model checker for Markov Chains. Our experimental results show that FHPMur$\varphi$ can handle systems that are out of reach for PRISM, namely those involving arithmetic operations on the state variables (e.g. hybrid systems).

Giuseppe Della Penna, Benedetto Intrigila, Igor Melatti, Enrico Tronci, and Marisa Venturini Zilli. "Exploiting Transition Locality in Automatic Verification of Finite State Concurrent Systems." Sttt 6, no. 4 (2004): 320–341. DOI: 10.1007/s1000900401496.
Abstract: In this paper we show that statistical properties of the transition graph of a system to be verified can be exploited to improve memory or time performances of verification algorithms. We show experimentally that protocols exhibit transition locality. That is, with respect to levels of a breadthfirst state space exploration, state transitions tend to be between states belonging to close levels of the transition graph. We support our claim by measuring transition locality for the set of protocols included in the Mur$\varphi$ verifier distribution. We present a cachebased verification algorithm that exploits transition locality to decrease memory usage and a diskbased verification algorithm that exploits transition locality to decrease disk read accesses, thus reducing the time overhead due to disk usage. Both algorithms have been implemented within the Mur$\varphi$ verifier. Our experimental results show that our cachebased algorithm can typically save more than 40% of memory with an average time penalty of about 50% when using (Mur$\varphi$) bit compression and 100% when using bit compression and hash compaction, whereas our diskbased verification algorithm is typically more than ten times faster than a previously proposed diskbased verification algorithm and, even when using 10% of the memory needed to complete verification, it is only between 40 and 530% (300% on average) slower than (RAM) Mur$\varphi$ with enough memory to complete the verification task at hand. Using just 300 MB of memory our diskbased Mur$\varphi$ was able to complete verification of a protocol with about $10^9$ reachable states. This would require more than 5 GB of memory using standard Mur$\varphi$.

Flavio Chierichetti, Silvio Lattanzi, Federico Mari, and Alessandro Panconesi. "On Placing Skips Optimally in Expectation." In Web Search and Web Data Mining (WSDM 2008), edited by M. Najork, A. Z. Broder and S. Chakrabarti, 15–24. Acm, 2008. DOI: 10.1145/1341531.1341537.
Abstract: We study the problem of optimal skip placement in an inverted list. Assuming the query distribution to be known in advance, we formally prove that an optimal skip placement can be computed quite efficiently. Our best algorithm runs in time O(n log n), n being the length of the list. The placement is optimal in the sense that it minimizes the expected time to process a query. Our theoretical results are matched by experiments with a real corpus, showing that substantial savings can be obtained with respect to the tra ditional skip placement strategy, that of placing consecutive skips, each spanning sqrt(n) many locations.
Keywords: Information Retrieval
