
Amedeo Cesta, Simone Fratini, Andrea Orlandini, Alberto Finzi, and Enrico Tronci. "Flexible Plan Verification: Feasibility Results." Fundamenta Informaticae 107, no. 2 (2011): 111–137. DOI: 10.3233/FI2011397.



Federico Mari, Igor Melatti, Ivano Salvo, and Enrico Tronci. From Boolean Functional Equations to Control Software. Vol. abs/1106.0468. CoRR, Technical Report, 2011. http://arxiv.org/abs/1106.0468 (accessed November 12, 2024).
Abstract: Many software as well digital hardware automatic synthesis methods define the set of implementations meeting the given system specifications with a boolean relation K. In such a context a fundamental step in the software (hardware) synthesis process is finding effective solutions to the functional equation defined by K. This entails finding a (set of) boolean function(s) F (typically represented using OBDDs, Ordered Binary Decision Diagrams) such that: 1) for all x for which K is satisfiable, K(x, F(x)) = 1 holds; 2) the implementation of F is efficient with respect to given implementation parameters such as code size or execution time. While this problem has been widely studied in digital hardware synthesis, little has been done in a software synthesis context. Unfortunately the approaches developed for hardware synthesis cannot be directly used in a software context. This motivates investigation of effective methods to solve the above problem when F has to be implemented with software. In this paper we present an algorithm that, from an OBDD representation for K, generates a C code implementation for F that has the same size as the OBDD for F and a WCET (Worst Case Execution Time) at most O(nr), being n = x the number of arguments of functions in F and r the number of functions in F.



Federico Mari, Igor Melatti, Ivano Salvo, and Enrico Tronci. Quantized Feedback Control Software Synthesis from System Level Formal Specifications for Buck DC/DC Converters. Vol. abs/1105.5640. CoRR, Technical Report, 2011. http://arxiv.org/abs/1105.5640 (accessed November 12, 2024).
Abstract: Many Embedded Systems are indeed Software Based Control Systems (SBCSs), that is control systems whose controller consists of control software running on a microcontroller device. This motivates investigation on Formal Model Based Design approaches for automatic synthesis of SBCS control software. In previous works we presented an algorithm, along with a tool QKS implementing it, that from a formal model (as a Discrete Time Linear Hybrid System, DTLHS) of the controlled system (plant), implementation specifications (that is, number of bits in the AnalogtoDigital, AD, conversion) and System Level Formal Specifications (that is, safety and liveness requirements for the closed loop system) returns correctbyconstruction control software that has a Worst Case Execution Time (WCET) linear in the number of AD bits and meets the given specifications. In this technical report we present full experimental results on using it to synthesize control software for two versions of buck DCDC converters (singleinput and multiinput), a widely used mixedmode analog circuit.



Vadim Alimguzhin, Federico Mari, Igor Melatti, Ivano Salvo, and Enrico Tronci. "Automatic Control Software Synthesis for Quantized Discrete Time Hybrid Systems." In Proceedings of the 51th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, CDC 2012, December 1013, 2012, Maui, HI, USA, 6120–6125. IEEE, 2012. ISBN: 9781467320658. Notes: Techreport version can be found at http://arxiv.org/abs/1207.4098. DOI: 10.1109/CDC.2012.6426260.



Vadim Alimguzhin, Federico Mari, Igor Melatti, Ivano Salvo, and Enrico Tronci. "On Model Based Synthesis of Embedded Control Software." In Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Embedded Software, EMSOFT 2012, part of the Eighth Embedded Systems Week, ESWeek 2012, Tampere, Finland, October 712, 2012, edited by Ahmed Jerraya and Luca P. Carloni and Florence Maraninchi and John Regehr, 227–236. ACM, 2012. ISBN: 9781450314251. Notes: Techreport version can be found at arxiv.org. DOI: 10.1145/2380356.2380398.



Federico Mari, Igor Melatti, Ivano Salvo, and Enrico Tronci. "Linear Constraints as a Modeling Language for Discrete Time Hybrid Systems." In Proceedings of ICSEA 2012, The Seventh International Conference on Software Engineering Advances, 664–671. ThinkMind, 2012.



Federico Mari, Igor Melatti, Ivano Salvo, and Enrico Tronci. "Undecidability of Quantized State Feedback Control for Discrete Time Linear Hybrid Systems." In Theoretical Aspects of Computing – ICTAC 2012, edited by A. Roychoudhury and M. D'Souza, 243–258. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 7521. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2012. ISBN: 9783642329425. DOI: 10.1007/9783642329432_19.



Federico Mari, Igor Melatti, Ivano Salvo, and Enrico Tronci. "Control Software Visualization." In Proceedings of INFOCOMP 2012, The Second International Conference on Advanced Communications and Computation, 15–20. ThinkMind, 2012. ISSN: 9781612082264.



Vadim Alimguzhin, Federico Mari, Igor Melatti, Ivano Salvo, and Enrico Tronci. A MapReduce Parallel Approach to Automatic Synthesis of Control Software. Vol. abs/1210.2276. CoRR, Technical Report, 2012. http://arxiv.org/abs/1210.2276 (accessed November 12, 2024).
Abstract: Many Control Systems are indeed Software Based Control Systems, i.e. control systems whose controller consists of control software running on a microcontroller device. This motivates investigation on Formal Model Based Design approaches for automatic synthesis of control software.
Available algorithms and tools (e.g., QKS) may require weeks or even months of computation to synthesize control software for largesize systems. This motivates search for parallel algorithms for control software synthesis.
In this paper, we present a mapreduce style parallel algorithm for control software synthesis when the controlled system (plant) is modeled as discrete time linear hybrid system. Furthermore we present an MPIbased implementation PQKS of our algorithm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first parallel approach for control software synthesis.
We experimentally show effectiveness of PQKS on two classical control synthesis problems: the inverted pendulum and the multiinput buck DC/DC converter. Experiments show that PQKS efficiency is above 65%. As an example, PQKS requires about 16 hours to complete the synthesis of control software for the pendulum on a cluster with 60 processors, instead of the 25 days needed by the sequential algorithm in QKS.



Vadim Alimguzhin, Federico Mari, Igor Melatti, Ivano Salvo, and Enrico Tronci. On Model Based Synthesis of Embedded Control Software. Vol. abs/1207.4474. CoRR, Technical Report, 2012. http://arxiv.org/abs/1207.4474 (accessed November 12, 2024).
Abstract: Many Embedded Systems are indeed Software Based Control Systems (SBCSs), that is control systems whose controller consists of control software running on a microcontroller device. This motivates investigation on Formal Model Based Design approaches for control software. Given the formal model of a plant as a Discrete Time Linear Hybrid System and the implementation specifications (that is, number of bits in the AnalogtoDigital (AD) conversion) correctbyconstruction control software can be automatically generated from System Level Formal Specifications of the closed loop system (that is, safety and liveness requirements), by computing a suitable finite abstraction of the plant.
With respect to given implementation specifications, the automatically generated code implements a time optimal control strategy (in terms of setup time), has a Worst Case Execution Time linear in the number of AD bits $b$, but unfortunately, its size grows exponentially with respect to $b$. In many embedded systems, there are severe restrictions on the computational resources (such as memory or computational power) available to microcontroller devices.
This paper addresses model based synthesis of control software by trading system level nonfunctional requirements (such us optimal setup time, ripple) with software nonfunctional requirements (its footprint). Our experimental results show the effectiveness of our approach: for the inverted pendulum benchmark, by using a quantization schema with 12 bits, the size of the small controller is less than 6% of the size of the time optimal one.

